Advertisement

Usefulness of Pet Ownership as a Modulator of Cardiac Autonomic Imbalance in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and/or Hyperlipidemia

Published:January 27, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.11.055
      Among patients with coronary artery disease, pet owners exhibit a greater 1-year survival rate than nonowners. Lifestyle-related diseases are well-known risk factors for coronary artery disease and induce imbalances in autonomic nervous activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether pet ownership modulates cardiac autonomic nervous activity imbalance in patients with lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. A total of 191 patients (mean age 69 ± 8 years) were interviewed about their pet ownership status and were classified into pet owner and nonowner groups. After recording a 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram for heart rate variability analysis, frequency-domain and nonlinear-domain analyses were performed to determine the high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, LF/HF ratio, and entropy. The heart rate variability parameters were assessed for 24 hours, during the day (8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.), and during the night (0:00 a.m. to 6.00 a.m.), and compared between the 2 groups. To evaluate the potential predictive factors for cardiac autonomic imbalance, univariate and multivariate analyses of HF and LF/HF were conducted for potential confounding variables. The pet owner group exhibited significantly greater HF24h, HFday, HFnight, entropy24h, entropyday, and entropynight and significantly lower LF/HF24h and LF/HFnight compared to the nonowner group. On multivariate analysis, pet ownership was independently and positively associated with HF24h, HFday, and HFnight and inversely associated with LF/HF24h and LF/HFnight. In conclusion, these results suggest that pet ownership is an independent modulator of cardiac autonomic imbalance in patients with lifestyle-related diseases.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Chrysant S.G.
        Stopping the cardiovascular disease continuum: focus on prevention.
        World J Cardiol. 2010; 2: 43-49
        • Lampert R.
        • Bremner J.D.
        • Su S.
        • Miller A.
        • Lee F.
        • Cheema F.
        • Goldberg J.
        • Vaccarino V.
        Decreased heart rate variability is associated with higher levels of inflammation in middle-aged men.
        Am Heart J. 2008; 156: e751-e757
        • Liao D.
        • Carnethon M.
        • Evans G.W.
        • Cascio W.E.
        • Heiss G.
        Lower heart rate variability is associated with the development of coronary heart disease in individuals with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
        Diabetes. 2002; 51: 3524-3531
        • Pehlivanidis A.N.
        • Athyros V.G.
        • Demitriadis D.S.
        • Papageorgiou A.A.
        • Bouloukos V.J.
        • Kontopoulos A.G.
        Heart rate variability after long-term treatment with atorvastatin in hypercholesterolaemic patients with or without coronary artery disease.
        Atherosclerosis. 2001; 157: 463-469
        • Mussalo H.
        • Vanninen E.
        • Ikäheimo R.
        • Laitinen T.
        • Laakso M.
        • Länsimies E.
        • Hartikainen J.
        Heart rate variability and its determinants in patients with severe or mild essential hypertension.
        Clin Physiol. 2001; 21: 594-604
        • Sasayama S.
        • Asano H.
        • Ishizaka S.
        • Miyagi K.
        Evaluation of functional capacity of patients with congestive heart failure.
        in: Yasuda H. Kawaguchi H. New Aspects in the Treatment of Failing Heart. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo1992: 113-117
        • Munakata M.
        • Nunokawa T.
        • Tayama J.
        • Yoshinaga K.
        • Toyota T.
        Brachial-ankle pulsewave velocity as a novel measure of arterial stiffness: present evidences and perspectives.
        Curr Hypertens Rev. 2005; 1: 223-234
        • Lang R.M.
        • Bierig M.
        • Devereux R.B.
        • Flachskampf F.A.
        • Foster E.
        • Pellikka P.A.
        • Picard M.H.
        • Roman M.J.
        • Seward J.
        • Shanewise J.S.
        • Solomon S.D.
        • Spencer K.T.
        • Sutton M.S.
        • Stewart W.J.
        • Chamber Quantification Writing Group, American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee, European Association of Echocardiography
        Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology.
        J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005; 18: 1440-1463
        • Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology
        Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use.
        Circulation. 1996; 93: 1043-1065
        • Buccelletti E.
        • Gilardi E.
        • Scaini E.
        • Galiuto L.
        • Persiani R.
        • Biondi A.
        • Basile F.
        • Silveri N.G.
        Heart rate variability and myocardial infarction: systematic literature review and metanalysis.
        Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009; 13: 299-307
        • Sawada Y.
        • Ohtomo N.
        • Tanaka Y.
        • Tanaka G.
        • Yamakoshi K.
        • Terachi S.
        • Shimamoto K.
        • Nakagawa M.
        • Satoh S.
        • Kuroda S.
        • Iimura O.
        New technique for time series analysis combining the maximum entropy method and non-linear least squares method: its value in heart rate variability analysis.
        Med Biol Eng Comput. 1997; 35: 318-322
        • Fujiwara Y.
        • Kurokawa S.
        • Asakura Y.
        • Wakao Y.
        • Nishiwaki K.
        • Komatsu T.
        Correlation between heart rate variability and haemodynamic fluctuation during induction of general anaesthesia: comparison between linear and non-linear analysis.
        J Anesth. 2007; 62: 117-121
        • Huikuri H.V.
        • Niemelä M.J.
        • Ojala S.
        • Rantala A.
        • Ikäheimo M.J.
        • Airaksinen K.E.
        Circadian rhythms of frequency domain measures of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease.
        Circulation. 1994; 90: 121-126
        • Kanaya N.
        • Hirata N.
        • Kurosawa S.
        • Nakayama M.
        • Namiki A.
        Differential effects of propofol and sevoflurane on heart rate variability.
        Anesthesiology. 2003; 98: 34-40
        • Friedmann E.
        • Katcher A.H.
        • Lynch J.J.
        • Thomas S.A.
        Animal companions and one-year survival of patients after discharge from a coronary care unit.
        Public Health Rep. 1980; 95: 307-312
        • Friedmann E.
        • Thomas S.A.
        Pet ownership, social support, and one-year survival after acute myocardial infarction in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST).
        Am J Cardiol. 1995; 76: 1213-1217
        • Friedmann E.
        • Thomas S.A.
        • Stein P.K.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        Relation between pet ownership and heart rate variability in patients with healed myocardial infarcts.
        Am J Cardiol. 2003; 91: 718-721
        • Fujiwara Y.
        • Sato Y.
        • Shibata Y.
        • Asakura Y.
        • Nishiwaki K.
        • Komatsu T.
        A greater decrease in blood pressure after spinal anaesthesia in patients with low entropy of the RR interval.
        Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007; 51: 1161-1165
        • Camm A.J.
        • Pratt C.M.
        • Schwartz P.J.
        • Al-Khalidi H.R.
        • Spyt M.J.
        • Holroyde M.J.
        • Karam R.
        • Sonnenblick E.H.
        • Brum J.M.
        • AzimiLide post Infarct surVival Evaluation (ALIVE) Investigators
        Mortality in patients after a recent myocardial infarction: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of azimilide using heart rate variability for risk stratification.
        Circulation. 2004; 109: 990-996
        • Perkiömäki J.S.
        • Hämekoski S.
        • Junttila M.J.
        • Jokinen V.
        • Tapanainen J.
        • Huikuri H.V.
        Predictors of long-term risk for heart failure hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.
        Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2010; 15: 250-258
        • Bigger Jr, J.T.
        • Fleiss J.L.
        • Steinman R.C.
        • Rolnitzky L.M.
        • Kleiger R.E.
        • Rottman J.N.
        Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 1992; 85: 164-171
        • Sakuragi S.
        • Sugiyama Y.
        Effects of daily walking on subjective symptoms, mood and autonomic nervous function.
        J Physiol Anthropol. 2006; 25: 281-289
        • Motooka M.
        • Koike H.
        • Yokoyama T.
        • Kennedy N.L.
        Effect of dog-walking on autonomic nervous activity in senior citizens.
        Med J Aust. 2006; 184: 60-63