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Impact of Smoking on Outcomes of Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (from the HORIZONS-AMI Trial)

      We assessed the impact of smoking on outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention using alternative antithrombotic regimens and stent types. In the HORIZONS-AMI trial 3,602 patients were randomly assigned to unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) or bivalirudin alone and paclitaxel-eluting stents or bare-metal stents. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers had significantly lower rates of mortality and major bleeding at 30 days and at 1 year; however, the differences were no longer significant after covariate adjustment. Smoking was associated with increased rates of definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST) at 1 year (adjusted RR 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 3.10) mainly because of a higher rate of late ST after paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation (1.9% vs 0.4%, p = 0.0006). In smokers bivalirudin monotherapy compared to UFH plus a GPI was associated with lower mortality at 30 days (0.5% vs 2.2%, p = 0.002) and at 1 year (1.8% vs 4.0%, p = 0.008). No decrease in mortality was seen with bivalirudin in nonsmokers. Major bleeding was significantly decreased with bivalirudin regardless of smoking status (smokers 3.7% vs 8.9%, p <0.0001; nonsmokers 6.5% vs 9.6%, p = 0.01). In conclusion, in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking is an independent predictor of definite/probable ST at 1 year. Bivalirudin monotherapy compared to UFH plus a GPI decreased major bleeding regardless of smoking status but may have different effects on individual components of ischemic events.
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