Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients With Versus Without Diabetes Mellitus

      There is a paucity of data on long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTOs) in the high-risk group of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after PCI of CTOs in patients with and without DM. A total of 1,742 patients with known DM status underwent PCI of CTOs at 3 tertiary care centers in the United States, South Korea, and Italy from 1998 to 2007. Five-year clinical outcomes were evaluated in patients with successful versus failed CTO PCI and the use of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) stratified according to DM status. A total of 395 patients (23%) had DM (42% of whom had insulin-dependent DM). Procedural success was similar in patients with versus without DM (69.6% vs 67.9%, p = 0.53). After successful CTO PCI, stents were implanted in 96.4% of patients with DM (BMS in 23.8%, DES in 76.2%) and in 94.0% of patients without DM (BMS in 38.6%, DES in 61.4%). Median follow-up was 3.0 years. In patients with DM, successful CTO PCI was associated with reduced long-term mortality (10.4% vs 13.0%, p <0.05) and a reduced need for coronary artery bypass grafting (2.4% vs 15.7%, p <0.01). The use of DES was associated with a reduction in target vessel revascularization in patients with DM (14.8% vs 54.1%, p <0.01) and in those without DM (17.6% vs 26.5%, p <0.01). Multivariate analysis identified insulin-dependent DM as an independent predictor of mortality in the DM cohort. In conclusion, successful CTO PCI in patients with DM was associated with a reduction in mortality and the need for coronary artery bypass grafting. Compared to non-insulin-dependent DM, patients with insulin-dependent DM had an increased risk for long-term mortality. The use of DES rather than BMS was associated with a reduction in target vessel revascularization in patients with and without DM.
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