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Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Profile Between Electrocardiographic Hypertrophy Versus Strain in Asymptomatic Patients With Aortic Stenosis (from SEAS Data)

      Electrocardiograms are routinely obtained in clinical follow-up of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The association with aortic valve, left ventricular (LV) response to long-term pressure load, and clinical covariates is unclear and the clinical value is thus uncertain. Data from clinical examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram in 1,563 patients in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study were used. Electrocardiograms were Minnesota coded for arrhythmias and atrioventricular and intraventricular blocks; LV hypertrophy was assessed by Sokolow–Lyon voltage and Cornell voltage–duration criteria; and strain by T-wave inversion and ST-segment depression. Degree of AS severity was evaluated by echocardiography as peak aortic jet velocity and LV mass was indexed by body surface area. After adjustment for age, gender, LV mass index, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, digoxin, antiarrhythmic drugs, drugs acting on the renin–angiotensin system, diuretics, β blockers and calcium receptor blockers; peak aortic jet velocity was significantly greater in patients with electrocardiographic strain (mean difference 0.13 m/s, p <0.001) and LV hypertrophy by Sokolow–Lyon voltage criteria (mean difference 0.12 m/s, p = 0.004). After similar adjustment, LV mass index was significantly greater in patients with electrocardiographic strain (mean difference 14.8 g/cm2, p <0.001) and LV hypertrophy by Sokolow–Lyon voltage criteria and Cornell voltage–duration criteria (mean differences 8.8 and 17.8 g/cm2, respectively, p <0.001 for the 2 comparisons). In multiple comparisons patients with electrocardiographic strain had increased peak aortic jet velocity, blood glucose, and uric acid, whereas patients with LV hypertrophy by Sokolow–Lyon voltage criteria were younger and patients with LV hypertrophy by Cornell voltage–duration criteria more often were women. In conclusion, electrocardiographic criteria for LV hypertrophy and strain are independently associated with peak aortic jet velocity and LV mass index. Moreover, clinical covariates differ significantly between patients with electrocardiographic strain and those with LV hypertrophy by Sokolow–Lyon voltage criteria and Cornell voltage–duration criteria.
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