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Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Acute Heart Failure With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

      Acute heart failure (AHF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (PLVEF) represents a significant part of AHF syndromes featuring particular characteristics. We sought to determine the clinical profile and predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with AHF and PLVEF in the Acute Heart Failure Global Survey of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF). This survey is an international observational study of 4,953 patients admitted for AHF in 9 countries (6 European countries, Mexico, and Australia) from October 2006 to March 2007. Patients with PLVEF were defined by an LVEF ≥45%. Of the total cohort, 25% of patients had PLVEF. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in this subgroup (7% vs 11% in patients with decreased LVEF, p = 0.013). Candidate variables included demographics, baseline clinical findings, and treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the variables independently associated with in-hospital mortality included systolic blood pressure at admission (p <0.001), serum sodium (p = 0.041), positive troponin result (p = 0.023), serum creatinine >2 mg/dl (p = 0.042), history of peripheral vascular disease and anemia (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively), secondary (hospitalization for other reason) versus primary AHF diagnosis (p = 0.043), and previous treatment with diuretics (p = 0.023) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p = 0.021). In conclusion, patients with AHF and PLVEF have lower in-hospital mortality than those with decreased LVEF. Low systolic blood pressure, low serum sodium, renal dysfunction, positive markers of myocardial injury, presence of co-morbidities such as peripheral vascular disease and anemia, secondary versus primary AHF diagnosis, and absence of treatment with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at admission may identify high-risk patients with AHF and PLVEF.
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