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Usefulness of the Right Ventricular Systolic to Diastolic Duration Ratio to Predict Functional Capacity and Survival in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

      The objective of this study was to investigate the systolic to diastolic duration ratio (S:D ratio) in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and its association with right ventricular (RV) performance, hemodynamics, 6-minute walk test, clinical outcomes, and survival. We reviewed 503 serial echocardiograms in 47 children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg) and compared the S:D ratio, assessed from Doppler flow of tricuspid valve regurgitation, to that in 47 age-matched controls. We reviewed echocardiograms, catheterization data, 6-minute walk tests, clinical data, lung transplantation, and death and used univariate linear regression models with a maximum likelihood algorithm for parameter estimation to investigate associations between S:D ratio and RV function, hemodynamics, functional capacity, and clinical outcomes. The S:D ratio was significantly higher in patients than in controls (1.38 ± 0.61 vs 0.72 ± 0.16, p <0.001). A higher S:D ratio was associated with worse echocardiographic RV fractional area of change, worse catheterization hemodynamics, shorter 6-minute walk distance, and worse clinical outcomes independent of pulmonary resistance or pressures. An increase of 0.1 in the S:D ratio was associated with a 13% increase in yearly risk for lung transplantation or death (hazard ratio 1.13, p <0.001). An S:D ratio 1.00 to 1.40 was associated with a moderate risk and an S:D ratio >1.40 was associated with a high risk of a negative outcome. In conclusion, in children with PAH, an increased S:D ratio is temporally associated with worse RV function, hemodynamics, exercise capability, clinical status, and survival.
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      Linked Article

      • Usefulness of Tachycardia in Predicting Survival With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
        American Journal of CardiologyVol. 106Issue 10
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          The article by the group in Toronto concludes that an increase in the ratio of systolic to diastolic intervals in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension predicts poorer survival.1 That ratio is determined by heart rate, and tachycardia in basal conditions has long been regarded an indicator of decreased functional capacity. It is not clear whether their method, requiring a Doppler echocardiogram focused on tricuspid regurgitation, is superior to heart rate alone.
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