Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Acute-Phase Outcome of Myocardial Infarction

      Several reports have alluded to the adverse effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long-term prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Little information is available, however, regarding the effects of a decrease in cardiopulmonary reserve imposed by COPD on in-hospital outcome of acute MI. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COPD on acute-phase outcome of patients with acute MI. From a cohort of 3,249 consecutive patients with ST-elevation MI who underwent primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention, 365 patients were identified as having coexistent COPD. Their clinical presentation and in-hospital outcome were compared to those of 2,884 patients without COPD. The primary end point was a composite of in-hospital death or cardiogenic shock on presentation. Patients with COPD were older (p <0.001), more often women (p <0.001), and smokers (p <0.001). They had higher prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency (p <0.001), systemic hypertension (p = 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01). Patients with COPD had higher rates of the composite end point of death or cardiogenic shock (p <0.0001). After multivariate analysis, COPD remained a strong independent predictor of the composite end point of death or cardiogenic shock (p = 0.008). In conclusion, COPD is a very strong predictor of hemodynamic compromise resulting in death or cardiogenic shock in patients presenting with ST-elevation MI. This observation suggests that hemodynamic and pulmonary consequences of COPD decrease the capacity of the circulatory system to adjust to the effects of acute MI. Recognition of the potential for combined therapy is vital.
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