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Relation of Urotensin II Levels to Lone Atrial Fibrillation

      Human urotensin II (U-II) is an 11–amnio acid peptide that plays an important role in hypertension and coronary artery disease. However, because there is no information on the role of U-II in the development of lone atrial fibrillation (AF), the goal of this study was to clarify the role of U-II in the development of lone AF. The study enrolled 42 patients (42.1 ± 4.0 years old) with paroxysmal lone AF and 30 healthy gender- and age-matched control subjects. The following factors were measured in blood collected after an overnight fast: glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), U-II, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). U-II levels were significantly higher in the lone AF than in the control group (4.09 ± 1.28 vs 2.85 ± 0.63 ng/ml, p <0.001). VCAM-1 levels were also higher in the lone AF than in the control group (337 ± 250 vs 218 ± 117 ng/ml, p = 0.018). In addition, hs-CRP levels were higher in the lone AF than in the control group (0.88 ± 0.29 mg/dl vs 0.67 ± 0.31 mg/dl, p = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis that included U-II, VCAM-1, hs-CP, and conventional AF risk factors showed that only U-II and hs-CRP were independently associated with lone AF. In conclusion, the results indicate that increased levels of U-II are associated with the development of lone AF. Additional studies will be necessary to determine whether the elevation of U-II is the cause or the result of AF.
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