Usefulness of Hypertensive Blood Pressure Response During a Single-Stage Exercise Test to Predict Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease

      The prognostic value of a hypertensive blood pressure (BP) response is still unclear. Therefore, the prognostic value of a hypertensive BP response in patients during single-stage exercise testing for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) on long-term mortality and major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiac events (MACCEs) was investigated. In addition, effects of statin, β-blocker, and aspirin use in patients with known or suspected PAD were studied. A total of 2,109 patients were enrolled in an observational prospective study from 1993 to 2005. Hypertensive BP response was defined as an increase in systolic BP ≥55 mm Hg (95th percentile within our population) after a single-stage treadmill exercise test. The outcome was obtained by using the civil registries, and a questionnaire about cardiac events was sent to all survivals. Hypertensive BP response was associated with increased risk of long-term mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.80) and MACCEs (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.97). After adjustments for clinical risk factors and propensity score, baseline statin use was associated with reduced risk of long-term mortality (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.79), and statin, β-blocker, and aspirin use were associated with reduced risk of MACCEs (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.81; HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.95; HR 0.73, 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92, respectively). In conclusion, hypertensive BP response at exercise in patients with known or suspected PAD is an important independent risk factor for all-cause long-term mortality and MACCEs, whereas statin, β-blocker, and aspirin use were associated with an improved outcome.
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