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Relation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Inflammatory Markers, Fibrinolytic Factors, and Lipoprotein(a) in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

      Increased inflammation, fibrinolytic factors, and lipoprotein(a) (LP[a]) were associated with increased cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular mortality. Whether CRF is associated with inflammatory markers, fibrinolytic factors, and LP(a) in patients with type 2 diabetes was investigated. A total of 425 men with type 2 diabetes (mean age 55 ± 8 years) who participated in a medical screening program were studied. CRF was measured using peak oxygen uptake with expired gas analysis during a symptom-limited exercise test. CRF inversely correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP; r = −0.27, p <0.05), white blood cell count (r = −0.13, p <0.05), fibrinogen (r = −0.28, p <0.05), LP(a) (r = −0.53, p <0.05), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen (r = −0.65, p <0.05), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (r = −0.17, p <0.05). Men in the highest tertile of CRF had significantly lower CRP, white blood cell count, fibrinogen, LP(a), and t-PA than men in the lowest tertile of CRF (all p <0.05). In separate multivariable linear regression models that adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, lipid profiles, glucose, and systolic blood pressure, CRP (β = −0.23, p <0.05), white blood cell count (β = −0.16, p <0.05), fibrinogen (β = −0.24, p <0.05), LP(a) (β = −0.28, p <0.05), and t-PA (β = −0.69, p <0.05) were each inversely associated with CRF. Each MET increment higher peak oxygen uptake was associated with a lower odds ratio of having abnormal LP(a) (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.91) in a multivariate logistic regression model. In conclusion, CRF was inversely associated with inflammatory markers, fibrinolytic factors, and LP(a) in men with type 2 diabetes.
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