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Expert Commentary: The Safety of Fibrates in Lipid-Lowering Therapy

Published:November 30, 2006DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.11.017
      The use of fibrates in the management of lipoprotein disorders has a history dating back to the mid-1960s. This group of drugs has now been tested in several large long-term trials with cardiovascular end points. Overall, there is good evidence for the reduction of cardiovascular disease in primary prevention studies and in those of subjects with manifest disease. More recent trials have suffered from high interference due to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) introduction, particularly in their placebo control groups. However, there is very good evidence for overall safety from a combined study of >20,000 patients in these controlled clinical trials lasting approximately 5 years. Abdominal pain has been observed more frequently in the statin vs placebo group. Myopathy, liver enzyme elevations, and cholecystitis have been potential adverse reactions of interest. However, these have occurred at a very low rate and are rarely found to be statistically more frequent in the active-treatment group compared with the subjects taking placebo. The recent Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study found a slightly higher incidence of pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Small creatinine and homocysteine elevations are observed in many patients taking fibrates, and the effect of this on long-term outcomes is under study. The FIELD study also described a significant reduction in the rates of progression of proteinuria and vascular retinopathy with fibrate therapy. To date, there has been no study exclusive to patients with elevated triglycerides, raising the question of the potential benefit of these drugs in patients with the lipid abnormalities most effectively treated with fibrates.
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