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Comparison of Outcomes in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated With Coronary Angioplasty Alone Versus Coronary Stent Implantation

Published:February 14, 2006DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.10.038
      Randomized trials have demonstrated the superiority of primary angioplasty with stent implantation over balloon angioplasty alone in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it remains unknown whether the beneficial outcomes that are attained in clinical trials can be generalized to community-based practice. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent primary angioplasty for AMI in New York State in 1998 and 1999. In total, 6,010 consecutive patients who presented within 23 hours of an AMI were identified for this analysis. In-hospital mortality was the primary end point. Stents were placed in 5,225 patients (87%). Patients who received stents were younger (61 vs 62 years, p = 0.011) and less often women (29% vs 33%, p = 0.018). Patients who received stents were less likely to have a history of hypertension (56% vs 61%, p = 0.013), diabetes (17% vs 24%, p <0.001), a creatinine level ≥2.5 mg/dl (0.8% vs 2.0%, p = 0.002), 3-vessel coronary disease (14% vs 19%, p <0.001), and left main disease (2.4% vs 4.6%, p <0.001). Stent use was associated with significant decreases in length of stay (5.9 vs 8.1 day, p <0.001), major adverse cardiovascular events (4.1% vs 12%, p <0.001), and in-hospital mortality (3.5% vs 9.3%, p <0.001). After multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, stent use was associated with a 50% decrease in risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.474, 95% confidence interval 0.311 to 0.723, p = 0.001).
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