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Left Ventricular Geometry and Survival in Patients With Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

Published:February 14, 2006DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.10.030
      In hypertensive populations, left ventricular (LV) geometry, which is characterized by hypertrophy, predicts cardiovascular outcome. The left ventricle can also alter its shape by concentric remodeling (CR) in the absence of LV hypertrophy, a feature that is detected by echocardiography. This study assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of various forms of LV geometry and changes in LV geometry over time in patients with normal LV systolic function. Retrospective analysis of a large clinical population (n = 35,602) that was referred for echocardiography was done, with all-cause mortality as the primary outcome. Abnormal LV geometry was identified in 46% of patients, with CR present in 35% (n = 12,362) and LV hypertrophy in 11% (n = 3,958). Patients with abnormal LV geometry were older and more obese compared with subjects with normal LV geometry. There was a strong relation between abnormal LV geometry and mortality, and patients with CR and LV hypertrophy exhibited considerably higher relative risk for all-cause mortality compared with subjects with normal LV geometry (relative risk [RR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88 to 2.18, p <0.0001; RR 2.13, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.40, p <0.0001, respectively). Subjects with CR who reverted to a normal geometric pattern had improved survival (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.97, p = 0.03) compared with those who progressed to LV hypertrophy (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.47, p = 0.05). In conclusion, CR, a form of cardiac adaptation, is frequently noted in patients with normal LV ejection fractions and confers a risk of death similar to that of LV hypertrophy. Normalization of CR is associated with better survival, whereas transition to LV hypertrophy increases mortality.
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