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What about statistical confounding?

      I wonder if Kannel et al
      • Kannel W.B.
      • Wilson P.W.F.
      • Nam B.
      • D'Agostino R.B.
      A likely explanation for the J-Curve of blood pressure cardiovascular risk.
      considered the fact that their main conclusion may have been different if they had removed 2 statistical confounders: the regression-dilution bias and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure (BP) with age after 50 years. Both of these confounders can artifactually inflate risk at low values of diastolic BP.
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      References

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