Anthony Nicholas Demaria, MD: A conversation with the editor*

        Tony DeMaria (Figure 1) was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey on January 12, 1943, and grew up in Bayonne, New Jersey. After public and parochial schools, he went to the College of the Holy Cross, graduating in 1964, and then to the New Jersey College of Medicine, graduating in 1968. His internship in internal medicine was at the St. Vincent Hospital in Worcester, Massachusetts, and his junior and senior medical residency was at the US Public Health Service Hospital in Staten Island, New York. His fellowship in cardiovascular medicine was at the University of California at Davis. Following completion of his fellowship in 1973, he remained on the faculty until June 1981, when he moved to Lexington, Kentucky, to be Professor of Medicine and Chief of the cardiovascular division of the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. In May 1992 he returned to California, this time to San Diego, as Professor of Medicine and Chief of the cardiovascular division of the University of California at San Diego. In October 2001, he was made the Judith and Jack White Chair in Cardiology. Dr. DeMaria has been, for nearly 3 decades, an international authority in cardiology, particularly in the area of echocardiography. His investigations have led to the publication of >450 articles, almost all in peer-reviewed medical journals. He is also the author or editor of 3 books. For his investigative work and teaching abilities, he has received many honors, including several Internal Medicine Distinguished Faculty Teaching Awards, Teaching Scholar of the American Heart Association, Distinguished Alumnus Award of the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, and honorary degrees from the Kagawa Medical University and the University of Bordeaux, among others. He was president of the American College of Cardiology in 1988 and president of the American Society of Echocardiography from 1985 to 1987. He became editor in chief of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in January 2002. He has lectured widely, both in the USA and abroad. He and his lovely wife Lori are the proud parents of 3 offspring, Christine and Anthony who are now married, and Jonathan. Both Tony and Lori are wonderful people and fun to be around.
        Figure thumbnail gr1
        FIGURE 1Anthony Nicholas DeMaria, MD, during the interveiw (photo by WCR).
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        Most important publications selected by AND

        1. Massumi RA, Mason DT, Amsterdam EA, DeMaria AN, Miller RR, Scheinman MM, Zelis R. Ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia after intravenous atropine for treatmentof bradycardias. N Engl J Med 1972;287:336–338.

        2. DeMaria AN, King JF, Bogren HG, Lies JE, Mason DT. The variable spectrum of echocardiographic manifestations of the mitral valve syndrome. Circulation 1974;50:33–41.

        3. DeMaria AN, Vera Z, Amsterdam EA, Mason DT, Massumi RA. Disturbances of cardiac rhythm and conduction inducted by exercise: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. Am J Cardiol 1974;33:732–736.

        4. DeMaria AN, Vismara LA, Auditore K, Amsterdam EA, Zelis R, Mason DT. Effects of nitroglycerin on left ventricular cavitary size and cardiac performance determined by ultrasound in man. Am J Med 1974;57:754–760.

        5. DeMaria AN, King JF, Salel AF, Caudill CC, Miller RR, Mason DT. Echography and phonography of acute aortic regurgitation in bacterial endocarditis. Ann Intern Med 1975;82:329–335.

        6. DeMaria AN, Lies JE, King JF, Miller RR, Amsterdam EA, Mason DT. Echocardiographic assessment of atrial transport, mitral movement, and ventricular performance following electroversion of supraventricular arrhythmias. Circulation 1975;51:273–282.

        7. DeMaria AN, Vismara LV, Miller RR, Neumann A, Mason DT. Unusual echographic manifestations of right and left heart myxomas. Am J Med 1975;59:713–720.

        8. DeMaria AN. The syndrome of mitral valve prolapse: problems and perspectives. Ann Intern Med 1976;85(4):525–526.

        9. DeMaria AN, Amsterdam EA, Vismara LA, Neumann A, Mason DT. Arrhythmias in the mitral valve prolapse syndrome: prevalence, nature and frequency. Ann Interm Med 1976;84:656–660.

        10. DeMaria AN, Miller RR, Amsterdam EA, Markson W, Mason DT. Mitral valve early diastolic closing velocity in the echocardiogram: relation to sequential diastolic flow and ventricular compliance. Am J Cardiol 1976;37:693–700.

        11. DeMaria AN, Vera Z, Neumann A, Mason DT. Alterations in ventricular contraction pattern in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: detection by echocardiography. Circulation 1976;53:249–257.

        12. DeMaria AN, Neumann A, Lee G, Mason DT. Echocardiographic identification of the mitral valve prolapse syndrome. Am J Med 1977;62:819–29.

        13. DeMaria AN, Neumann A, Lee G, Fowler W, Mason DT. Alterations in ventricular mass and performance induced by exercise training in man evaluated by echocardiography. Circulation 1978;57:237–244.

        14. DeMaria AN, Oliver LE, Bogren HG, George L, Mason DT. Apparent reduction of aortic and left heart chamber size in atrial septal defect. Am J Cardiol 1978;42:545–550.

        15. Sahn DJ, DeMaria AN, Kisslo J, Weyman A. Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements. Circulation 1978;58(6):1072–1083.

        16. DeMaria AN, Bommer W, Neumann A, Weinert L, Bogren H, Mason DT. Identification and localization of aneurysms of the ascending aorta by cross-sectional echocardiography. Circulation 1979;59:755–761.

        17. DeMaria AN, Neumann A, Bommer W, Weinert L, Grehl T, Amsterdam EA, Mason DT. Left ventricular thrombi by cross-sectional echocardiography. Ann Inten Med 1979;90:14–18.

        18. DeMaria AN, Neumann A, Schubart PJ, Lee G, Mason DT. Systemic correlation of cardiac chamber size and ventricular performance determined with echocardiography and alterations in heart rate in normal persons. Am J Cardiol 1979;43:1–9.

        19. DeMaria AN, Bommer W, Joye JA, Lee G, Bouteller J, Mason DT. Value and limitations of cross-sectional echocardiography of the aortic valve in the diagnosis and quantification of valvular aortic stenosis. Circulation 1980;62:304–312.

        20. DeMaria AN, Bommer W, Lee G, Mason DT. Value and limitations of two-dimensional echocardiography in assessment of cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1980;46:1224–1231.

        21. Low RI, Takeda P, Lee G, Mason DT, Awan NA, DeMaria AN. Effects of diltiazem-induced calcium blockade upon exercise capacity in effort angina due to chronic coronary artery disease. Am Heart J 1981;101:713–718.

        22. Woythaler JN, Singer SL, Kwan OL, Meltzer RS, Reubner B, Bommer W, DeMaria AN. Accuracy of echocardiography versus electrocardiography in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison with post-mortem mass measurements. J Am Coll Cardiol 1982;2:305–311.

        23. Nissen SE, Booth D, Waters J, Fassas T, DeMaria AN. Evaluation of left ventricular contractile pattern by intravenous digital subtraction ventriculography: comparison with cineangiography and assessment of interobserver variability. Am J Cardiol 1983;52(10):1293–1298.

        24. DeMaria AN, Bommer W, Kwan OL, Riggs K, Smith MD, Waters J. In vivo correlation of thermodilution cardiac output and videodensitometric indicator-dilution curves obtained from contrast two-dimensional echocardiograms. J Am Coll Cardiol 1984;3:999–1004.

        25. Johnson GL, Kwan OL, Cottrill CM, DeMaria AN. Detection and quantitation of right ventricular outlet obstruction secondary to aneurysm of the membranous ventricular septum by combined two-dimensional echocardiography: continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound. Am J Cardiol 1984;53:1476–1477.

        26. Johnson GL, Kwan OL, Handshoe S , Noonan J, DeMaria AN. Accuracy of combined two-dimensional echocardiography and continuous wave Doppler recording in the estimation of pressure gradient in right ventricular outlet obstruction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1984;3:1013–1018.

        27. Smith MD, Kwan OL, Reiser HJ, DeMaria AN. Superior intensity and reproducibility of SHU-454, a new right heart contrast agent. J Am Coll Cardiol 1984;3:992–998.

        28. Friedman BJ, Waters JS, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography in determination of cardiac dimensions in normals. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;5:1369–1376.

        29. Smith MD, Dawson PL, Elion JL, Booth DC, Handshoe R, Kwan OL, Earle GF, DeMaria AN. Correlation of continuous wave Doppler velocities with cardiac catheterization gradients: an experimental model of aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;6:1306–1314.

        30. Friedman BJ, Drinkovic N, Miles H, Shih WJ, Mazzoleni A, DeMaria AN. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function: comparison of Doppler echocardiography and gated blood pool scintigraphy. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;8(6):1348–1354.

        31. Grayburn PA, Smith MD, Handshoe R, Friedman BJ, Handshoe S, DeMaria AN. Comparative accuracy of pulsed Doppler, echo and auscultation in the detection of aortic insufficiency. Ann Int Med 1986;l04:599–605.

        32. Nissen SE, Elion JL, Booth DC, Evans J, DeMaria AN. Value and limitations of computer analysis of digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of coronary flow reserve. Circulation 1986;73:562–571.

        33. Smith MD, Handshoe R, Handshoe S, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Comparative accuracy of 2-D echocardiography and Doppler pressure half-time methods in assessing severity of mitral stenosis in patients with and without prior commissurotomy. Circulation 1986;73:100–107.

        34. Smith MD, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Value and limitations of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography in estimating severity of valvular stenosis. JAMA 1986;255:3145–3151.

        35. Wisenbaugh T, Nissen S, DeMaria AN. Mechanics of postextrasystolic potentiation in normal subjects and patients with valvular heart disease. Circulation 1986;74:10–20.

        36. DeMaria AN, Wisenbaugh TW. Identification and treatment of diastolic dysfunction: role of transmitral Doppler recordings. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;9:1106–1107.

        37. Grayburn PA, Handshoe R, Smith MD, Harrison MR, DeMaria AN. Quantitative assessment of the hemodynamic consequences of aortic regurgitation by means of continuous wave Doppler recordings. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;10:135–141.

        38. Grayburn PA, Nissen SE, Elion JL, Evans J, DeMaria AN. Quantitation of aortic regurgitation by computer analysis of digital subtraction angiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;10:1122–1127.

        39. Grayburn PA, Smith MD, Gurley JC, Booth DC, DeMaria AN. Effect of aortic regurgitation on the assessment of mitral valve orifice area by Doppler pressure half-time. Am J Cardiol 1987;60:322–326.

        40. Nissen SE, Elion JL, Grayburn P, Booth DC, Wisenbaugh TW, DeMaria AN. Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction by computer densitometric analysis of digital subtraction angiography: experimental validation and correlation with area-length methods. Am J Cardiol 1987;59:675–680.

        41. Rovai D, Nissen SE, Elion JL, Smith MD, L'Abbate A, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Contrast echo washout curves application of basic principles of indicator dilution theory and calculation of ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;10:125–134.

        42. Gillespie MN, Booth DC, Friedman BJ, Cunningham MR, Jay M, DeMaria AN. fMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits. Am J Physiol 1988;254:H481–H486.

        43. Grayburn PA, Smith MD, Harrison MR, Gurley JC, DeMaria AN. Pivotal role of aortic valve area calculation by the continuity equation for Doppler assessment of aortic stenosis in patients with combined aortic stenosis and regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:376–381.

        44. Gurley JC, Nissen SE, Booth DC, Harrison M, Grayburn P, Elion JL, DeMaria AN. Comparison of simultaneously performed digital and film-based angiography in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Circulation 1988;78(6):1411–1420.

        45. Harrison MR, Smith MD, Nissen SE, Grayburn PA, DeMaria AN. Use of exercise Doppler to evaluate cardiac drugs: effects of propranolol and verapamil on aortic blood flow velocity and acceleration. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;1(5):1002–1009.

        46. DeMaria AN, Smith MD, Harrison MR. Clinical significance of in-vitro and in-vivo experimental findings regarding Doppler flow velocity recordings. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:1682–1686.

        47. Grines CL, Nissen SE, Booth DC, Branco MC, Gurley JC, Bennett KA, DeMaria AN, KAMIT Study Group. A new thrombolytic regimen for acute myocardial infarction using half dose tissue plasminogen activator with full dose streptokinase. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;14(3):573–580.

        48. Harrison MR, Clifton GD, Sublett KL, DeMaria AN. Effect of heart rate on Doppler indexes of systolic function in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;14(4):929–935.

        49. Rovai D, L'Abbate A, Lombardi M, Nissen SE, Marzilli M, Distante A, Ferdeghini EM, DeMaria AN. Nonuniformity of the transmural distribution of coronary blood flow during the cardiac cycle. In-vivo documentation by contrast echocardiography. Circulation 1989;79(1):179–187.

        50. Smith MD, Kwan OL, Elion JL, McClure R, DeMaria AN. Left heart opacification with peripheral venous injection of a new saccharide echo contrast agent in dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:1622–1628.

        51. Spain MG, Smith MD, Graybum PA, Harlamert EA, O'Brien M, DeMaria AN. Quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation by Doppler color flow imaging: angiographic and hemodynamic correlations. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:585–590.

        52. Wisenbaugh TW, Harlamert EA, DeMaria AN. Relation of left ventricular filling dynamics to alterations in load and compliance in patients with and without pressure-overload hypertrophy. Circulation 1989;1(1):101–106.

        53. Berk MR, Xie G, Kwan OL, Knapp C, Evans J, Kotchen T, Kotchen JM, DeMaria AN. Reduction of left ventricular preload by lower body negative pressure alters Doppler transmitral filling patterns. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16(6):1387–1392.

        54. Garrahy PG, Kwan OL, Booth DC, DeMaria AN. Assessment of abnormal systolic intraventricular flow patterns by Doppler imaging in patients with left ventricular dyssynergy. Circulation 1990;82:95–104.

        55. Grines CL, Booth DC, Nissen SE, Gurley JC, Bennett KA, O'Connor WN, DeMaria AN. Mechanism of acute myocardial infarction in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting and therapeutic implications. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:1292–1296.

        56. Gurley JC, Nissen SE, Elion JL, Booth DC, DeMaria AN. Determination of coronary flow reserve by digital angiography: validation of a practical method not requiring power injection or electrocardiographic gating. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:190–197.

        57. Nissen SE, Grines CL, Gurley JC, Sublett KL, Haynie DP, Diaz C, Booth DC, DeMaria AN. Application of a new phased-array ultrasound imaging catheter in the assessment of vascular dimensions: in-vivo comparison to cineangiography. Circulation 1990;81:660–666.

        58. Grines CL, Booth DC, Nissen SE, Gurley JC, Bennett KA, DeMaria AN. Acute effects of parenteral beta-blockade on regional ventricular function of infarct and noninfarct zones after reperfusion therapy in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;17:1382–1387.

        59. Grines CL, Nissen ST, Booth DC, Gurley JC, Chelliah N, Wolf R, Blankenship J, Branco MC, Bennett K, DeMaria AN, Kentucky Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (KAMIT) Group. A prospective, randomized trial comparing combination half-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator and streptokinase with full-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator. Circulation 1991;84:540–549.

        60. Harrison MR, Clifton GD, Pennell AT, DeMaria AN. Effect of heart rate on left ventricular diastolic transmitral flow velocity patterns assessed by Doppler echocardiography in normal subjects. Am J Cardiol 1991;67:622–627.

        61. Nissen SE, Gurley JC, Grines CL, Booth DC, McClure R, Berk M, Fischer C, DeMaria AN. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of lumen size and wall morphology in normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1991;84:1087–1099.

        62. Smith MD, Harrison MR, Pinton R, Kandil H, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Regurgitant jet size by transesophageal compared with transthoracic Doppler flow imaging. Circulation 1991;83:79–86.

        63. King DL, Harrison MR, King D Jr, Gopal AS, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Ultrasound beam orientation during standard two-dimensional imaging: assessment by three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1992;5(6):569–576.

        64. King DL, Harrison MR, King D Jr, Gopal AS, Martin R, DeMaria AN. Improved reproducibility of left atrial and left ventricular measurements by guided three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20(5):1238–1245.

        65. Rovai D, Ghelardini G, Lombardi M, Trivella MG, Nevola E, Taddei L, Michelassi C, Distante A, DeMaria AN. Myocardial washout of sonicated iopamidol reflects coronary blood flow in the absence of autoregulation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20(6):1417–1424.

        66. Brotheron T, Pollard T, Simpson P, DeMaria AN. Classifying tissue and structure in echocardiograms: hierarchy of fuzzy-logic based neural networks automate analysis. Engineering Med Bio 1994;13(5):754–759.

        67. Xie GY, Berk MR, Smith MD, DeMaria AN. A simplified method for determining regurgitant fraction by Doppler echocardiography in patients with aortic regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24(4):l041–1045.

        68. Xie GY, Berk MR, Smith MD, Gurley JC, DeMaria AN. Prognostic value of Doppler transmitral flow patterns in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24(I):132–139.

        69. Nozaki S, DeMaria AN, Helmer GA, Hammond HK. Detection of regional left ventricular dysfunction in early pacing-induced heart failure using ultrasonic integrated backscatter. Circulation 1995;92:2676–2682.

        70. DeMaria AN, Lee TH, Leon DF, Ullyot DJ, Wolk MJ, Mills PS, Fay SC, Brown JH, Flatau CN, Bodycombe DP. Effect of managed care on cardiovascular specialists: involvement, attitudes and practice adaptations. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28(7):1884–1895.

        71. Giordano F, Ping P, McKirnan MD, Nozaki S, DeMaria AN, Dillman W, Mathieu-Costello O, Hammond HK. Intracoronary gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-5 increases blood flow and contractile function in an ischemic region of the heart. Nature Med 1996;2(5):534–539.

        72. Kimura BJ, Russo RJ, Bhargava V, McDaniel M, Peterson KL, DeMaria AN. Atheroma morphology and distribution in proximal left anterior descending coronary artery: in vivo observations. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(4):825–831.

        73. Yamagishi M, Nissen SE, Booth DC, Gurley JC, Koyama J, Kawano S, DeMaria AN. Coronary reactivity to nitroglyerin: intravascular ultrasound evidence for the importance of plaque distribution. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;25:224–230.

        74. Ohmori K, Cotter B, Kwan OL, Mizushige K, DeMaria AN. Relation of contrast echo intensity and flow velocity to the amplification of contrast opacification produced by intermittent ultrasound transmission. Am Heart J 1997;134(6):1066–1074.

        75. Galiuto L, Ignone G, DeMaria AN. Heterogeneity of contraction and relaxation velocities of normal human myocardium. A quantitative study using pulsed wave tissue Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1998;81(5):609–614.

        76. Yasu T, Schmid-Schonbein GW, Cotter B, DeMaria AN. Flow dynamics of QW7437, a new dodecafluoropentane ultrasound contrast agent, in the microcirculation: microvascular mechanisms for persistent tissue echo enhancement. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34(2):578–586.

        77. Kimura BJ, Scott R, Willis CL, DeMaria AN. Accuracy and cost-effectiveness of single-view echocardiographic screening for suspected mitral valve prolapse. Am J Med 2000;108:331–333.

        78. Masugata H, Cotter B, Peters B, Ohmori K, Mizushige K, DeMaria AN. Assessment of coronary stenosis severity and transmural perfusion gradient by myocardial contrast echocardiography: comparison of gray scale B-mode with power Doppler imaging. Circulation 2000;102:1427–1433.

        79. Kimura BJ, Bocchicchio M, Willis CL, DeMaria AN. Screening cardiac ultrasonographic examination in patients with suspected cardiac disease in the emergency department. Am Heart J 2001;142(2):324–330.

        80. Lafitte S, Masugata H, Peters B, Togni M, Strachan M, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Comparative value of dobutamine and adenosine stress in the detection of coronary stenosis with myocardial contrast echocardiography. Circulation 2001;103:2724–2730.

        81. Laffite S, Masugata H, Peters B, Togni M, Strachan M, Yao B, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Accuracy and reproducibility of coronary flow rate assessment by real-time contrast echocardiography: in vitro and in vivo studies. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2001;14:1010–1019.

        82. Leistad E, Ohmori K, Peterson TA, Christensen G, DeMaria AN. Quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion during graded coronary artery stenoses by intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:624–631.

        83. Mahmud E, Raisinghani A, Keramati S, Auger W, Blanchard DG, DeMaria AN. Dilation of the coronary sinus on echocardiogram: prevalence and significance in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2001;14:44–49.

        84. Maisel AS, Koon J, Krishnaswamy P, Kasenegra R, Clopton P, Gardetto N, Morrissey R, DeMaria A. Utility of B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a rapid, point of care test for screening patients undergoing echocardiography for left ventricular dysfunction. Am Heart J 2001;141:367–374.

        85. Masugata H, Lafitte S, Peters B, Strachan GM, DeMaria AN. Comparison of real-time and intermittent triggered myocardial contrast echocardiography for quantification of coronary stenosis severity and transmural perfusion gradient. Circulation 2001;104:1550–1556.

        86. Masugata H, Peters B, Lafitte S, Strachan GM, Ohmori K, DeMaria AN. Quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion during graded coronary stenosis by rReal-time myocardial cContrast echo refilling curves. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:262–269.

        87. Ohmori K, Cotter B, Leistad E, Bhargava V, Wolf PL, Mizushige K, DeMaria AN. Assessment of myocardial reperfusion by intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography: analysis of the intensity and texture of opacification. Circulation 2001;103:2021–2027.

        88. Kimura BJ, Amundson SA, Willis CL, Gilpin EA, DeMaria AN. Usefulness of a hand-held ultrasound device for bedside examination of left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:1038–1039.

        89. Lafitte S, Higashiyama A, Masugata H, Peters B, Strachan M, Kwan OL, DeMaria AN. Contrast echocardiography can assess risk area and infarct size during coronary occlusion and reperfusion: experimental validation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39(9):1546–1554.

        90. Lubien E, DeMaria AN, Krishnaswamy P, Clopton P, Koon J, Kazanegra R, Gardetto N, Wanner E, Maisel AS. Utility of B-natriuretic peptide in detecting diastolic dysfunction: comparison with Doppler velocity recordings. Circulation 2002;105:595–601.

        91. Raisinghani A, Mahmud E, Sadeghi M, Peters B, Strachan GM, Huynh T, Blanchard D, DeMaria AN. Paradoxical inferior-posterior wall systolic expansion in patients with end-stage liver disease. Am J Cardiol 2002;89:626–629.

        92. Kimura BJ, DeMaria AN. Time requirements of the standard echocardiogram: implications regarding limited studies. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003;16(10):1015–1018.

        93. Kimura BJ, Fowler SJ, Nguyen DT, Amundson SA, DeMaria AN. Detection of early carotid arterial atherosclerosis by briefly trained physicians using a hand-held ultrasound device. Am J Cardiol 2003;92(2):239–240.

        94. Kunichika H, Peters B, Cotter B, Masugata H, Kunichika N, Wolf PL, DeMaria AN. Visualization of risk-area myocardium as a high-intensity, hyperenhanced “hot spot” by myocardial contrast echocardiography following coronary reperfusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42(3):552–557.

        95. Masugata H, Fujita N, Kondo I, Peters B, Ohmori K, Mizushige K, Kohno M, DeMaria AN. Assessment of right ventricular perfusion after right coronary artery occlusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(10):1823–1830.

        96. Raisinghani A, Wei K, Crouse LJ, Villanueva F, Feigenbaum H, Schiller NB, Weiss J, Zaqvi TZ, Siegel R, Monaghan M, Goldman JH, DeMaria AN. Myocardial contrast echocardiography with triggered ultrasound does not cause ventricular premature beats: evidence from PB127 studies. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003;10:1037–1042.

        97. Wei K, Crouse L, Weiss J, Villanueva F, Schiller NB, Naqvi TZ, Siegel R, Monaghan M, Goldman J, Aggarwal P, Feigenbaum H, DeMaria A. Comparison of usefulness of dipyridamole stress myocardial contrast echocardiography to technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography for detection of coronary artery disease (PB127 multicenter Phase 2 trial Results). Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1293–1298.

        98. Nissen SE, Tuzeu EM, Schoenhagen P, Brown BG, Ganz P, Vogel RA, Crowe T, Howard G, Cooper CJ, Brodie B, Grines CL, DeMaria AN. Effect of intensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy on progression of coronary atherosclerosis—a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291(9):1071–1080.