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Wallace Bruce Fye III, MD, MA, MACC: A conversation with the editor*

        Bruce Fye was born in Meadville, Pennsylvania, on 25 September 1946 and grew up mainly in the Philadelphia area (Figure 1). He graduated from The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland in 1968 and from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1972. At Hopkins, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and Alpha Omega Alpha. His internship and 2 years of medical residency were at the New York Hospital Cornell Medical Center. His fellowship in cardiology was at Johns Hopkins. During his fellowship Dr. Fye was selected as a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar. After completing his cardiology training, he received a Master's degree in medical history from Johns Hopkins. In 1978, Dr. Fye moved to Marshfield, Wisconsin, to create an echocardiographic laboratory at the Marshfield Clinic. Three years later, he became Chair of the Department of Cardiology there, and he remained in that position until 1999. In addition to his cardiologic practice, Dr. Fye has written extensively on the history of medicine, particularly related to cardiovascular disease and physiology. He has written 2 books and edited 3 others. He has written 26 chapters in various books and published approximately 275 articles, most of which were in peer-review journals. He has been very active in the American College of Cardiology (ACC) for 20 years and was the president of the ACC in 2002 to 2003. Dr. Fye is a internationally known medical historian and was president of the American Osler Society in 1988 to 1989. His book American Cardiology: The History of a Specialty and Its College (1996) won the William H. Welch medal of the American Association for the History of Medicine in 2000. That prestigious medal is awarded to the “sole investigator of a book of outstanding scholarly merit in the field of medical history published during the 5 calendar years preceding the award.” In 2001, he moved to Rochester, Minnesota, to be Consultant in the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Mayo Clinic and Professor of Medicine and Professor of History of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. In addition to his practice, his writing, and his collecting and selling of medical books, he is a popular sought-after speaker. He has given approximately 200 lectures in various meetings and been the invited visiting professor to 36 major medical centers, mainly university medical centers, in the US. Additionally, he is a great guy, honorable in every way, and fun to be around. He and his lovely wife, Lois, are the parents of 2 wonderful daughters.
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        FIGURE 1Wallace Bruce Fye during the interview (photo by WCR).
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        Best publications as selected by WBF

        Books

        1. Fye WB, ed. William Osler's Collected Papers on the Cardiovascular System. Birmingham, Alabama: Gryphon Editions, 1985.

        2. Fye WB. The Development of American Physiology: Scientific Medicine in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

        3. Fye WB, ed. Classic Papers on Coronary Thrombosis and Myocardial Infarction. Birmingham, AL: Gryphon Editions, 1991.

        4. Fye WB. American Cardiology: The History of a Specialty and its College. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

        5. W. Bruce Fye contributed 57 biographies to this book.

        Selected book chapters

        1. Fye WB. Growth of American physiology, 1850-1900. In: Physiology in the American Context, 1850-1940. Geison GL, ed. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1987;2:47–65.

        2. Fye WB. Acute myocardial infarction: a historical summary. In: Gersh BJ, Rahimtoola S, eds. Acute Myocardial Infarction. New York: Elsevier, 1990:1–13.

        3. Fye WB. Albion Walter Hewlett: teacher, clinician, scientist, and missionary for “Pathologic Physiology” In: Howell JD, ed. Medical Lives & Scientific Medicine at Michigan, 1891–1969, Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1993:45–72.

        4. Fye WB. A history of cardiac arrhythmias. In: Kastor JA, ed. Arrhythmias. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994:1–24.

        5. Fye WB. A historical perspective on atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. In: Fuster V, Ross R, Topol E, eds. Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996:1–12.

        6. Fye WB. Cardiovascular pharmacology: a historical perspective. In: Frishman WH, Sonnenblick EH, eds. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996:47–56.

        7. Fye WB. William Osler's bibliomania. In: Barondess J, Roland CG, eds. The Persisting Osler III: Selected Transactions of the American Osler Society 1991–2000. Malabar: Krieger Publishing, 2002:67–78.

        Selected articles

        1. Fye WB. The literature and history of internal medicine—an annotated bibliography. Ann Intern Med 1977;87:123–128.

        2. Fye WB. Active euthanasia—an historical survey of its conceptual origins and introduction into medical thought. Bull Hist Med 1979;52:492–501.

        3. Fye WB. Collecting medical books—practical and theoretical considerations. Trans Coll Phys Philadelphia 1979;1:305–323.

        4. Fye WB. Echocardiography 1980: indications and usefulness. Wis Med J 1980;79:19–22.

        5. Fye WB. Key references: history of cardiology. Circulation 1981;64:434–436.

        6. Fye WB. Why a physiologist? The case of Henry P. Bowditch. Bull Hist Med 1982;56:19–29.

        7. Fye WBS. Weir Mitchell: Philadelphia's “lost” physiologist. Bull Hist Med 1983;57:188–202.

        8. Fye WB. Ernest Henry Starling: his law and its growing significance in the practice of medicine. Circulation 1983;68:1145–1148.

        9. Fye WB. Sydney Ringer and the role of calcium in myocardial function. Circulation 1984;69:849–853.

        10. Fye WB. Heparin: the contributions of William Henry Howell. Circulation 1984;69:1198–1203.

        11. Fye WB. Coronary arteriography: it took a long time. Circulation 1984;70:781–787.

        12. Fye WB. Collecting medical books: challenges and opportunities in the 80s. Bull NY Acad Med 1985;61:250–265.

        13. Fye WBH. Newell Martin: a remarkable career destroyed by neurasthenia and alcoholism. J Hist Med Allied Sci 1985;40:135–166.

        14. Fye WB. Acute coronary occlusion always results in death: or does it? The observations of William T. Porter. Circulation 1985;71:4–10.

        15. Fye WB. Cardiology in 1885. Circulation 1985;72:21–26.

        16. Fye WB. Ventricular fibrillation and defibrillation: historical perspectives. Circulation 1985;71:858–865.

        17. Fye WB. The delayed diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction: it took half a century! Circulation 1985;72:262–271.

        18. Fye WB. Nitroglycerin: a homeopathic remedy. Circulation 1986;73:21–29.

        19. Fye WB. H. Newell Martin and the isolated heart preparation: the link between the frog and open heart surgery. Circulation 1986;73:857–864.

        20. Fye WB. T. Lauder Brunton and amyl nitrite: a Victorian vasodilator. Circulation 1986;74:222–229.

        21. Fye WB. American contributions to cardiovascular medicine and surgery. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, 1986.

        22. Fye WB. The history of cardiology: a bibliography of secondary sources. Bethesda: National Library of Library Med, 1986.

        23. Fye WB. Carl Ludwig and the Leipzig Physiological Institute. “A factory of new knowledge.” Circulation 1986;74:920–928.

        24. Fye WB. The literature of American internal medicine: a historical view. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:450–461.

        25. Fye WB. The origin of the heart beat: a tale of frogs, jellyfish and turtles. Circulation 1987;76:493–500.

        26. Fye WB. William Osler's departure from North America. The price of success. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1425–1431.

        27. Fye WB. Austin Flint, 1812-1886. Clin Cardiol 1989;12:476–477.

        28. Fye WB. Vasodilator therapy for angina pectoris: the intersection of homeopathy and scientific medicine. J Hist Med Allied Sciences 1990;45:317–340.

        29. Fye WB. Medical authorship: traditions, trends, and tribulations. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:317–325.

        30. Fye WB. The origin of the full-time faculty system: implications for clinical research. JAMA 1991;265:1555–1562.

        31. Fye WB. Medical book collecting: a retrospect and a forecast. New Jersey Med 1992;89:835–841.

        32. Fye WB. The history of medicine: an annotated list of key reference works. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:59–62.

        33. Fye WB. A history of the American Heart Association's Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation 1993;87:1057–1063.

        34. Fye WB. Disorders of the heartbeat: a historical overview from antiquity to the mid-20th century. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1055–1070.

        35. Fye WB. A history of the origin, evolution, and impact of electrocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:937–949.

        36. Fye WB. Managed care and patients with cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1998;97:1895–1896.

        37. Fye WB. Franz M. Groedel. Clin Cardiol 2000;23:133–134.

        38. Fye WB. President's Page. Convocation address: the art of medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1238–1241.

        39. Fye WB. Cardiology workforce: there's already a shortage, and it's getting worse! J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:2077–2079.

        40. Fye WB. Women cardiologists: why so few? J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:384–386.

        41. Fye WB. Cardiology and technology: an enduring and energizing partnership. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1192–1195.

        42. Fye WB. Medical history: a valuable tool to help us frame the present and predict the future. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;41:346–349.

        43. Fye WB. The power of clinical trials and guidelines, and the challenge of conflicts of interest. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1237–1242.

        44. Fye WB. Cardiology's workforce shortage: implications for patient care and research. Circulation 2004;109:813–816.

        45. Fye WB, Hirshfeld JW, et al. Cardiology's workforce crisis: a pragmatic approach. Presented at the 35th Bethesda Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, October 17-18, 2003. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:215–275.

        46. Fye WB. The origins and implications of a growing shortage of cardiologists. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:221–232.