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Ferid Murad, MD, PhD: a conversation with the editor*

        Ferid Murad was born in Whiting, Indiana, on September 14, 1936, to an Albanian Muslim immigrant father and an American Baptist mother. He worked during his growing-up period in his parents' restaurant, which was connected to their 4-room apartment. Scholarships allowed him to do his undergraduate degree in premedical science and chemistry at DePauw University, where he graduated in 1958, and other scholarships allowed him to do his MD and PhD training at Case Western University in Cleveland, where he completed the 7-year program in 1965. His internship and first-year residency in internal medicine was at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and from 1967 until 1970, he was a researcher in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. From 1970 to 1981, he was on the faculty of the University of Virginia School of Medicine, reaching the rank of Professor. He also directed the medical school's research center and the Department of Clinical Pharmacology. In 1981, he moved to Palo Alto, California, to be Chairman of Medicine at the Palo Alto Veteran's Administration Hospital, a Stanford University affiliate, and in 1988, he became vice president at Abbott Laboratories. He left that company in 1993 to found Molecular Geriatrics Corporation, and in 1997, he went to Houston, Texas, as its first Chair of the Department of Integrative Biology, Pharmacology, and Physiology. He is also the Director of the Institute of Molecular Medicine for Prevention of Human Diseases and the John S. Dunn, Sr., Distinguished Chair in Physiology and Medicine.
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        Further reading

        Selected articles

        1. Murad F, Chi YM, Rall TW, Sutherland EW. The effect of catecholamines and choline esters on the formation of adenosine 3′, 5′-phosphate by preparations from cardiac muscle and liver. J Biol Chem 1962;237:1233–1238.

        2. Murad F, Vaughn M. Effect of glucagon on rat heart adenyl cyclase. Biochem Pharmacol 1969;18:1053–1059.

        3. Murad F, Strauch BS, Vaughan M. The effect of gonadotropins on testicular adenyl cyclase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1969;177:591–598.

        4. Murad F, Brewer HB, Vaughan M. Effect of thyrocalcitonin on adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate formation by rat kidney and bone. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1970;65:446–453.

        5. Murad F, Manganiello V, Vaughan M. A simple sensitive protein binding assay for guanosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1971;68:736–739.

        6. Gilman AG, Murad F. Assay of cyclic nucleotides by receptor protein binding displacement. In: Hardman J, O'Malley B, eds. Methods in Enzymology: Hormone Action Part C Cyclic Nucleotides. New York: Academic Press, 1974;38:49–61.

        7. Kimura H, Murad F. Evidence for two different forms of guanylate cyclase in rat heart. J Biol Chem 1974;249:6910–6919.

        8. Kimura H, Murad F. Two forms of guanylate cyclase in mammalian tissues and possible mechanisms for their regulation. Metabolism 1975;24:439–445.

        9. Kimura H, Murad F. Increased particulate and decreased soluble guanylate cyclase activity in regenerating liver, fetal liver, and hepatoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1975;72:1965–1969.

        10. Kimura H, Mittal CK, Murad F. Activation of guanylate cyclase from rat liver and other tissues with sodium azide. J Biol Chem 1975;250:8016–8022.

        11. Kimura H, Mittal CK, Murad F. Increases in cyclic GMP levels in brain and liver with sodium azide, an activator of guanylate cyclase. Nature 1975;257:700–702.

        12. Mittal CK, Kimura H, Murad F. Requirement for a macromolecular factor for sodium azide activation of guanylate cyclase. J Cyclic Nucl Res 1975;1:261–269.

        13. Kimura H, Mittal CK, Murad F. Appearance of magnesium guanylate cyclase activity in rat liver with sodium-azide activation. J Biol Chem 1976;251:7769–7773.

        14. Katsuki S, Murad F. Regulation of cyclic 3′, 5′-adenosine monophosphate and cyclic 3′, 5′-guanosine monophosphate levels and contractility in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Mol Pharmacol 1977;13:330–341.

        15. Mittal CK, Murad F. Formation of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate by preparations of guanylate cyclase from rat liver and other tissues. J Biol Chem 1977;252:3136–3140.

        16. Katsuki S, Arnold W, Mittal CK, Murad F. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase by sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin and nitric oxide in various tissue preparations and comparison to the effects of sodium azide and hydroxylamine. J Cyclic Nucl Res 1977;3:23–35.

        17. Mittal CK, Kimura H, Murad F. Purification and properties of a protein required for sodium azide activation of guanylate cyclase. J Biol Chem 1977;252:4348–4390.

        18. Arnold WP, Mittal CK, Katsuki S, Murad F. Nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase and increases guanosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate levels in various tissue preparations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1977;74:3203–3207.

        19. Katsuki S, Arnold WP, Murad F. Effect of sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin and sodium azide on levels of cyclic nucleotides and mechanical activity of various tissues. J Cyclic Nucl Res 1977;3:239–247.

        20. Arnold WP, Aldred R, Murad F. Cigarette smoke activates guanylate cyclase and increases cyclic GMP levels in tissues. Science 1977;198:934–936.

        21. Mittal CK, Murad F. Properties and oxidative regulation of guanylate cyclase. J Cyclic Nucl Res 1977;3:381–391.

        22. Murad F, Mittal CK, Arnold WP, Katsuki S, Kimura H. Guanylate cyclase: activation by azide, nitro compounds, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radical and inhibition by hemoglobin and myoglobin. Adv Cyclic Nucl Res 1978;9:145–158.

        23. Mittal CK, Arnold WP, Murad F. Characterization of protein inhibitors of guanylate cyclase activation from rat heart and bovine lung. J Biol Chem 1978;253:1266–1271.

        24. Murad F, Mittal CK, Arnold WP, Ichihara K, Braughler E, El-Zayat M. Properties and regulation of guanylate cyclase: activation by azide, nitro compounds and hydroxyl radical and effects of heme containing proteins. Proceedings of the NATO Advisory Study Institute on Cyclic Nucleotides, Italy, 1977. In: Folca G, Paoletti R, eds. Molecular Biology and Pharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotides. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1978:33–42.

        25. Hughes J, Murad F, Chang B, Guerrant R. The role of cyclic GMP in the mechanism of action of the heat-stable enterotoxin of E. coli. Nature 1978;271:755–756.

        26. Braughler JM, Mittal CK, Murad F. Purification of soluble guanylate cyclase from rat liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979;76:219–222.

        27. Murad F, Arnold WP, Mittal CK, Braughler JM. Properties and regulation of guanylate cyclase and some proposed functions for cyclic GMP. Adv Cyclic Nucl Res 1979;11:175–204.

        28. Braughler JM, Mittal CK, Murad F. Effects of thiols, sugars and proteins on nitric oxide activation of guanylate cyclase. J Biol Chem 1979;254:12450–12454.

        29. Guerrant RL, Hughes JM, Chang B, Robertson DC, Murad F. Activation of intestinal guanylate cyclase by heat stable enterotoxin of Escherichia Coli: studies of tissue specificity, potential receptors and intermediates. J Infect Dis 1980;142:220–228.

        30. Murad F, Lewicki JA, Brandwein HJ, Mittal CK, Waldman SA. Guanylate cyclase: purification, properties, free radical activation, radiolabelling, and preparation of hybridoma antibodies. Adv Cyclic Nucl Res 1981;14:229–239.

        31. Brandwein HJ, Lewicki JA, Murad F. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to soluble guanylate cyclase. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1981;78:4241–4245.

        32. Rapoport RM, Draznin M, Murad F. Sodium nitroprusside-induced protein phosphorylation in intact rat aorta is mimicked by 8-bromo-cyclic GMP. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1982;79:6470–6474.

        33. Rapoport RM, Murad F. Agonist-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation in rat thoracic aorta may be mediated through cyclic GMP. Circ Res 1983;52:352–357.

        34. Rapoport RM, Draznin MB, Murad F. Endothelium dependent relaxation in rat aorta may be mediated through cyclic GMP-dependent protein phosphorylation. Nature 1983;306:274–276.

        35. Fiscus RR, Rapoport RM, Murad F. Endothelium-dependent and nitrovasodilator-induced activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in rat aorta. J Cyclic Nucl Protein Phosphor Res 1983;9:415–425.

        36. Rapoport RM, Murad F. Endothelium-dependent and nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle: role for cyclic GMP. J Cyclic Nucl Protein Phosphor Res 1983;9:281–296.

        37. Winquist RM, Faison EP, Waldman SA, Schwartz K, Murad F, Rapoport RM. Atrial natriuretic factor elicits and endothelium independent relaxation and activates particulate guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1984;81:7661–7664.

        38. Waldman SA, Rapoport RM, Murad F. Atrial natriuretic factor selectively activates particulate guanylate cyclase and elevates cyclic GMP in rat tissues. J Biol Chem 1984;259:14332–14334.

        39. Rapoport RM, Waldman SA, Schwartz K, Winquist RJ, Murad F. Effects of atrial natriuretic factor, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine on cyclic GMP and relaxation in rat aorta. Eur J Pharm 1985;115:219–229.

        40. Murad F. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate as a mediator of vasodilation. J Clin Invest 1986;78:1–5.

        41. Kuno T, Kamisaki Y, Waldman SA, Garieppy J, Schoolnik GK, Murad F. Characterization of the receptor for heat-stable enterotoxin form E. Coli in rat intestine. J Biol Chem 1986;261:1470–1476.

        42. Kuno T, Andresen JW, Kamisaki Y, Waldman SA, Chang LY, Saheki S, Leitman DC, Nakane M, Murad F. Copurification of an atrial natriuretic factor receptor and particulate guanylate cyclase from rat lung. J Biol Chem 1986;261:5817–5823.

        43. Leitman DC, Andresen JW, Kuno T, Kamisaki Y, Chang J, Murad F. Identification of multiple binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor by affinity cross-linking in cultered endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 1986;261:11650–11655.

        44. Kamisaki Y, Saheki S, Nakane M, Palmieri J, Kuno T, Chang B, Waldman SA, Murad F. Soluble guanylate cyclase from rat lung exists as a heterodimer. J Biol Chem 1986;261:7236–7241.

        45. Waldman SA, Rapoport RM, Ginsburg R, Murad F. Desensitization to nitroglycerin in vascular smooth muscle from rat and human. Biochem Pharmacol 1986;35:3525–3531.

        46. Leitman DC, Agnost VL, Tuan JJ, Andresen JW, Murad F. Atrial natriuretic factor and sodium nitroprusside increase cyclic GMP in cultured rat lung fibroblasts by activating different forms of guanylate cyclase. Biochem 1987;244:69–74.

        47. Molina C, Andresen JW, Rapoport RM, Waldman SA, Murad F. The effects of in vitro nitroglycerin therapy on endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in rat aorta. J Card Pharmacol 1987;10:371–378.

        48. Waldman SA, Murad F. Cyclic GMP synthesis and function. Pharmacol Rev 1987;39:163–196.

        49. Murad F, Leitman DC, Bennett BM, Molina CR, Waldman SA. Regulation of guanylate cyclase by atrial natriuretic factor and the role of cyclic GMP in vasodilation. Am J Med Sci 1987;249:139–143.

        50. Murad F. The mechanism of relaxation of EDRF: similarities of the effects of EDRF and nitrovasodilators on cyclic GMP formation and vascular relaxation. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Pharmacogy, 1988.

        51. Murad F. The role of cyclic GMP in the mechanism of action of nitrovasodilators, endothelium-dependent agents and atrial natriuretic peptide. Biochem Soc Trans 1988;16:490–492.

        52. Nakane M, Saheki S, Kuno T, Ishii K, Deguchi T, Murad F. Molecular coloning of a cDNA coding for 70 kD subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase from rat lung. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988;157:1139–1147.

        53. Murad F, Leitman D, Waldman S, Chang CH, Hirata M, Kohse K. Effects of nitrovasodilators, endothelium-dependent vasodilators and atrial peptides on cGMP. Proceedings of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, Signal Transduction 1988;53:1005–1009.

        54. Murad F. Mechanisms for hormonal regulation of the different isoforms of guanylate cyclase. In: Gehring Y, Helmreich E, Schultz G, eds. Proceedings of the 40th Mosbach Colloquium on Molecular Mechanisms of Hormone Action. Heidelberg: Springer 1989:186–194.

        55. Ishii K, Gorsky L, Förstermann U, Murad F. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF): the endogenous activator of soluble guanylate cyclase in various types of cells. J Appl Cardiol 1989;4:505–512.

        56. Hirata M, Kohse K, Chang CH, Ikebe T, Murad F. Mechanism of cyclic GMP inhibition of inositol phosphate formation in rat aorta segments and cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem 1990;265:1268–1273.

        57. Murad F. Drugs used in the treatment of angina: organic nitrites, calcium channel blockers and β-adrenergic antagonists. In: Gilman AG, Rall RW, Nies A, Taylor P, eds. Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. VIII ed. 1990:764–783.

        58. Ishii K, Chang B, Kerwin JF, Huang ZJ, Murad F. NT-Nitro-L-Arginine: a potent inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor formation. Eur J Pharmacol 1990;176:219–223.

        59. Murad F, Ishii K, Gorsky L, Förstermann U, Kerwin J, Heller M. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger and extracellular paracrine substance for cyclic GMP synthesis. In: Moncada S, Higgs EA, eds. Proceedings of the International Meeting on Nitric Oxide from L-Arginine: a Bioregulatory System. 1990;32:301–315.

        60. Murad F, Ishii K, Förstermann U, Gorsky L, Kerwin JF, Pollock J, Heller M. EDRF is an intracellular second messenger and autacoid to regulate cyclic GMP synthesis in many cells. Proceedings of the VII Internation Conference on Cyclic Nucleotides, Calcium and Protein Phosphorylation. Adv Cyclic Nucl Res 1990;24:441–448.

        61. Förstermann U, Gorsky L, Pollock J, Ishii K, Schmidt HHHW, Heller M, Murad F. Hormone induced biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor-nitric oxide-like material in N1E = 115 neuroblastoma cells requires calcium and calmodulin. Mol Pharmacol 1990;38:7–13.

        62. Nakane M, Arai K, Saheki S, Kuno T, Buechler W, Murad F. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNAs coding for soluble guanylate cyclase from rat lung. J Biol Chem 1990;265:16841–16845.

        63. Förstermann U, Gorsky L, Pollock JS, Schmidt HHHW, Ishii K, Heller M, Murad F. Subcellular localization and regulation of the enzymes responsible for EDRF synthesis in endothelial cells and N1E 115 neuroblastoma cells. Eur J Pharmacol 1990;183:1625–1626.

        64. Horio Y, Murad F. Solubilization of guanylate cyclase from bovine rod outer segments and effects of Ca2+ and nitro compounds. J Biol Chem 1991;266:3411–3415.

        65. Ishii K, Chang B, Kerwin JF, Wagenaar FL, Huang ZJ, Murad F. Formation of EDRF in porcine kidney epithelial LLC-PK1 cells:an intra- and intercellular messenger for activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991;256:38–43.

        66. Förstermann U, Pollock J, Schmidt HHHW, Heller M, Murad F. Calmodulin-dependent endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide sythase activity is present in the particulate and cytosolic fractions of bovine aortic endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:1788–1792.

        67. Schmidt HHHW, Pollock J, Nakane M, Gorsky L, Förstermann U, Heller M, Murad F. Purification of a soluble isoform of guanylyl cyclase-activating-factor synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:365–369.

        68. Ishii K, Warner T, Sheng H, Murad F. Endothelin-1 stimulates cyclic GMP formation in porcine kidney epithelial cells via activation of the L-arginine-dependent soluble guanylate cyclase pathway. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1991;17:246–250.

        69. Sheng H, Ishii K, Murad F. Generation of an EDRF-like substance in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 1991;260:489–493.

        70. Ishii K, Sheng H, Warner T, Förstermann U, Murad F. A simple and sensitive bioassay method for detection of EDRF with RFL6 rat lung fibroblasts. Am J Physiol 1991;261:598–603.

        71. Förstermann U, Schmidt HHHW, Pollock JS, Heller M, Murad F. Enzymes synthesizing guanylyl cyclase activating factor (GAF) in endothelial cells, neuroblastoma cells and rat brain. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1991;17:557–564.

        72. Buechler WA, Nakane M, Murad F. Expression of soluble guanylate cyclase activity requires both enzyme subunits. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;174:351–357.

        73. Pollock JS, Förstermann U, Mitchell JA, Warner TD, Schmidt HHHW, Nakane M, Murad F. Purification and characterization of particulate EDRF synthase from cultured and native bovine aortic endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:10480–10484.

        74. Förstermann U, Schmidt HHHW, Pollock JS, Sheng H, Mitchell JA, Warner TD, Nakane M, Murad F. Isoforms of EDRF/NO synthase: characterization and purification from different cell types. Biochem Pharmacol 1991;42:1849–1857.

        75. Sheng H, Mitchell JA, Nakane M, Schmidt H, Pollock JS, Warner TD, Förstermann U, Murad F. Characterization of nitric oxide synthase from nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerves in rat anococcygeus and bovine retractor penis muscle. In: Moncaca S, Marletta MA, Hibbs JB, Higgs EA, eds. Biology of Nitric Oxide. 1991;119–121.

        76. Nakane M, Mitchell JA, Förstermann U, Murad F. Phosphorylation by calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C modulates the activity of nitric oxide synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;180:1396–1402.

        77. Schmidt HHHW, Murad F. Purification and characterization of a human NO synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;181:1372–1377.

        78. Ishii K, Warner TD, Sheng H, Murad F. Endothelin increases cyclic GMP in LLC-PK1 porcine kidney epithelial cells via formation of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like substance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991;259:1102–1108.

        79. Yonemara N, Ishii K, Murad F, Raffin T. Atriopeptin-induced increases in endothelial cell permeability are associated with elevated cyclic GMP levels. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 1992;7:363–369.

        80. Förstermann U, Schmidt HHHW, Murad F. Induced RAW 264.7 macrophages express soluble and particulate nitric oxide synthase: inhibition by transforming growth factor-beta. Eur J Pharmacol 1992;225:161–165.

        81. Sheng H, Schmidt HHHW, Nakane M, Mitchell J, Pollock J, Förstermann U, Murad F. Characterization and localization of nitric oxide synthase in no-adrenergic noncholinergic nerves from bovine retractor penis muscles. Br J Pharmacol 1992;106:768–773.

        82. Schmidt HHHW, Warner T, Ishii K, Sheng H, Murad F. Insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells caused by L-arginine derived nitric oxide. Science 1992;255:721–723.

        83. Schmidt HHHW, Warner T, Murad F. The double-edged role of endogenous nitrogen oxides. Lancet 1992;339:986.

        84. Sheng H, Hughes M, Murad F, Briggs C. Evidence that nitric oxide mediates the cyclic GMP response to synaptic activity in the rat superior cervical ganglion. Brain Res 1992;597:343–345.

        85. Schmidt HHHW, Pollock J, Nakane M, Förstermann U, Murad F. Calcium-calmodulin regulated nitric oxide synthases. Cell Calcium 1992;13:427–434.

        86. Polloock J, Klinghofer V, Förstermann U, Murad F. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is myristylated. FEBS Lett 1992;309:402–404.

        87. Wilcox C, Welch J, Murad F, Gross S, Taylor G, Levi R, Schmidt H. Nitric oxide synthase in macula densa regulates glomerular capillary pressure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:11993–11997.

        88. Schmidt HHHW, Warner T, Ishii K, Sheng H, Murad F. Role of NO in insulin secretion. Science 1992;255:721–723.

        89. Murad F, Förstermann U, Nakane M, Pollock J, Schmidt HHHW, Matsumoto T, Tracey WR, Buechler W. Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system. In: Catravas J, Callow A, Ryan U, eds. Proceedings of NATO-ASI Conference on Vascular Endothelium, Rhodes Greece, June 1992. New York: Plenum: NATO ASI Series 1993;257:73–80.

        90. Murad F, Förstermann U, Nakane M, Pollock J, Tracey WR, Matsumoto T, Buechler W. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication. Adv Second Messenger Phosphoprotein Res 1993;28:101–109.

        91. Pollock J, Nakane M, Buttery, Martinez A, Springall D, Polak J, Förstermann U, Murad F. Characterization and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase using specific monoclonal antibodies. Am J Physiol 1993;265:1379–1387.

        92. Sheng H, Gagne G, Matsumoto T, Miller M, Förstermann U, Murad F. Nitric oxide synthase in bovine superior cervical ganglion. J Neurochem 1993;61:1120–1126.

        93. Murad F. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system for intracellular and intercellular communication. In: Bardin CW, ed. Recent Progress Hormone Res. San Diego:Academic Press, 1994;49:239–248.

        94. Wendland B, Schweizer F, Ryan T, Nakane M, Murad F, Smith S, Scheller R, Tsien R. Existence of nitric oxide synthase in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;90:2151–2155.

        95. Murad F. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system. In: Masaki T, ed. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Endothelium-Derived Factors and Vascular Functions, Tokyo, December 1993. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1994:29–37.

        96. Murad F. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system. In: Masaki T, ed. Proceedings of the Fourth Internatioal Symposium on Endothelium-Derived Factors and Vascular Functions, Tokyo, December 1993. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica 1994:29–37.

        97. Murad F. The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signal transduction system. In: Weissman BA, Allan N, Shapiro S, eds. Proceeding of the 38th OHOLO Conference on Biochemical, Pharmacological and Clinical Aspects of Nitric Oxide. Eilat, Israel: Plenum, 1994: 1995.

        98. Ignarro L, Murad F, eds. Nitric oxide: biochemistry, molecular biology, and therapeutic implications. Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:1–516.

        99. Papapetropoulous A, Go C, Murad F, Catravas J. Mechanisms of tolerance to sodium nitroprusside in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol 1996;117:147–155.

        100. Murad F. Signal transduction using nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate JAMA 1996;276:1189–1192.

        101. Murad F. Nitric oxide signaling: Would you believe that a simple free radical could be a second messenger, autocoid, paracrine substance, neurotransmitter and hormone? Recent Prog Horm Res 1998;53:43–60.

        102. Kamisaki Y, Wada K, Bian K, Balabanli B, Davis K, Martin E, Behbod F, Lee Y-C, Murad F. An enzyme activity in rat tissues that modifies nitrotyrosine-containing proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:11584–11589.

        103. Murad F. Discovery of some of the biologic effects of nitric oxide and its role in cellular signaling. Nobel Lecture, Bioscience Reports 1999;19:133–154.

        104. Balabanli B, Kamisaki Y, Martin E, Murad F. Requirements for heme and thiols for the nonezymatic modification of nitrotyrosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:13136–13141.

        105. Sharina I, Krumenacker J, Martin E, Murad F. Genomic organization of alpha1, and beta1 subunits of mammalian soluble guanylyl cyclase genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:10878–10883.

        106. Lee YC, Martin E, Murad F. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:10763–10768.

        107. Bian K, Harari Y, Zhong M, Lai M, Castro G, Weisbrodt N, Murad F. Down regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase during parasite-induced gut inflammation. A path to identify a selective NOS-2 inhibitor. Mol Pharmacol 2001;59:939–947.

        108. Krumenacker J, Hyder S, Murad F. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:717–722.

        109. Davis K, Martin E, Turko I, Murad F. Novel effects of nitric oxide. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2001;41:203–236.

        110. Marcondes S, Turko I, Murad F. Nitration of succinyl Co-A:3-oxoacid CoA transferase in rats following endotoxin administration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:7146–7151.

        111. Turko I, Marcondes S, Murad F. Diabetes-associated nitration of tyrosine and inactivation of succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase. Physiol Am J Physiol Heart Circ 2001;281:2289–2294.

        112. Martin E, Lee YC, Murad F. YC-1 activation of human soluble guanylyl cyclase has both heme-dependent and heme-independent components. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:12938–12942.

        113. Bian K, Zhong M, Harari Y, Weisbrodt N, Murad F. Down regulation of inducible nitric oxide sythase by an IL4Ra/Stat6-dependent and T-cell independent pathway during parasite-induced gut inflammation. Mol Pharmacol 2001;59:939–947.

        114. Turko I, Murad F. Protein nitration in cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacol Rev 2002;54:619–634.

        115. Adewuya O, Irie Y, Bian K, Onigu-Otite E, Murad F. Mechanism of vasculitis and aneurysms in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease: role of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide Biol Chem 2003;8:15–25.

        116. Murad F. The excitement and rewards of research with our discovery of some of the biologic effects of nitric oxide. Circ Res 2003;92:339–341.

        117. Bian K, Gao Z, Weisbrodt N, Murad F. The nature of heme/iron-induced protein tyrosine nitration. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2003;100:5712–5717.

        118. Turko I, Murad F. Quantitative protein profiling in heart mitochondria from diabetic rats. J Biol Chem 2003;278:35844–35849.

        119. Turko I, Li L, Aulak K, Stuehr D, Chang R, Murad F. Protein tyrosine nitration in the mitochondria from diabetic mouse heart. J Biol Chem 2003;278:33972–33977.

        120. Martin E, Sharina I, Kots A, Murad F. A constitutively activated mutant of human soluble guanylyl cyclase. Implication for the mechanism of soluble guanylyl cyclase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:9208–9213.

        121. Ruiz-Stewart I, Tiyyagura SR, Kazerounian S, Pitari GM, Schulz S, Martin E, Murad F, Waldman SA. Guanylyl cyclase is an ATP sensor coupling nitric oxide signaling to cell metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:37–42.