Anatomical observations of the pulmonary veins with intracardiac echocardiography and hemodynamic consequences of narrowing of pulmonary vein ostial diameters after radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation


      Intracardiac echocardiography was used to explore pulmonary venous (PV) anatomy and to monitor PV stenosis in 31 patients referred for radiofrequency catheter ablation at PV ostia. Interindividual variations in PV anatomy and insertion in the left atrium were observed. Narrowing of PV ostia after radiofrequency catheter ablation did not produce significant hemodynamic changes.
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