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PROFESSOR Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub, FRS, FRCS, FRCP, DS: a conversation with the editor*

        Sir Magdi Yacoub was born on November 16, 1935 in Belbais, Egypt. He grew up in several different small towns or villages in Egypt. At age 15, he entered the University of Cairo College of Medicine on a full scholarship. Following a rotating internship at Cairo University Hospital, he did 2 years residency in general surgery at the same institution and then went to London, where he did his cardiothoracic training at the London Chest Hospital, the Brompton Hospital, and the National Heart Hospitals. Following completion of his training in July 1968, he spent a year at the University of Chicago as an Assistant Professor in the Section of Cardiovascular Surgery. In August 1969, he returned to London as a Consultant Cardiothoracic Surgeon at the Harefield Hospital. Four years later he was also appointed Consultant Cardiac Surgeon at the National Heart Hospital in London, and in 1986 he became the first British Heart Foundation Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the National Heart & Lung Institute at Imperial College School of Medicine. Sir Magdi Yacoub has done more cardiac and cardiac/pulmonary transplantations than anyone. His clinical contributions to surgery of both acquired and congenital disease and to conditions affecting the aorta, and his basic science contributions via his extensive laboratories, have led to the publication of approximately 800 articles, most of which have appeared in peer-reviewed medical journals. For his work, he has received many honors. In 1991, he was knighted by the Queen of England for his contributions to cardiac surgery. In 1998, he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in London. Professor Yacoub is a giant among cardiovascular surgeons. He is the father of 3 children. Additionally, he is a great guy and fun to be aroundFigure 1.
        Figure thumbnail GR1
        FIGURE 1MHY at time of interview.
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        Further reading

        Best publications as listed by MHY
        Numbered by date order, not as on CV.
        §Numbered by date order, not as on CV.

        1. Yacoub M, Kittle C. A new technique for replacement of the mitral valve by a semilunar valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1969;58:859–869.

        2. McKay R, Yacoub M. Clinical and pathological findings in patients with “floppy” valves treated surgically. Circulation 1973;48:63–73.

        3. Yacoub M, Radley-Smith R. Use of a valved conduit from right atrium to pulmonary artery for “correction of single ventricle. Circulation 1976;54:63–70.

        4. Yacoub M, Radley-Smith R. Anatomy of the coronary arteries in transposition of the great arteries and methods for their transfer in anatomical correction. Thorax 1978;33:418–424.

        5. Yacoub M, Radley-Smith R, MacLaurin R. Two-stage operation for anatomical correction of transposition of the great arteries with intact inter-ventricular septum. Lancet 1978;1:1275–1278.

        6. Mustafa I, Gula G, Radley-Smith R, Durrer S, Yacoub M. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the anterior aortic sinus: a potential cause of sudden death. Anatomic characterization and surgical treatment. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981;82:297–300.

        7. Yacoub M, Bernhard A, Radley-Smith R, Lange P, Sievers H, Heintzen P. Supravalvular pulmonary stenosis after anatomic correction of transposition of the great arteries: causes and prevention. Circulation 1982;66:1193–1197.

        8. Yacoub M, Arensman F, Keck E, Radley-Smith R. Fate of dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction after anatomic correction of transposition of the great arteries. Circulation 1983;68:56–62.

        9. Arensman F, Bostock J, Radley-Smith R, Yacoub M. Cardiac rhythm and conduction before and after anatomic correction of transposition of the great arteries. Am J Cardiol 1983; 52:836–839.

        10. Borow K, Arensman F, Webb C, Radley-Smith R, Yacoub M. Assessment of left ventricular contractile state following anatomic correction of transposition of the great arteries. Circulation 1984;69:106–112.

        11. Yacoub M, Radley-Smith R. Anatomic correction of the Taussig-Bing anomaly. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1984;88:380–388.

        12. Alexopoulos D, Rynkiewicz A, Yusuf S, Johnston J, Sleight P, Yacoub M. Diurnal variations in QT interval after cardiac transplantation. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:482–485.

        13. Banner N, Guz A, Heaton R, Innes J, Murphy K, Yacoub M. Ventilatory and circulatory responses at the onset of exercise in man following heart or heart/lung transplantation. J Physiol (Lond) 1988;399:437–449.

        14. Wharton J, Polak J, Gordon L, Banner N, Springall D, Rose M, Khaghani A, Wallwork J, Yacoub M. Immunohistochemical demonstration of human cardiac innervation before and after transplantation. Circ Res 1990;66:900–912.

        15. Chester A, O'Neill G, Moncada S, Tadjkarimi S, Yacoub M. Low basal and stimulated release of nitric oxide in atherosclerotic epicardial coronary arteries. Lancet 1990;336:897–900.

        16. Kushwaha SS, Crossman DC, Bustami M, Davies GJ, Mitchell AG, Maseri A, Yacoub MH. Substance P for evaluation of coronary endothelial function after cardiac transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;17:1537–1544.

        17. Chester MR, Madden B, Barnett D, Yacoub M. The effect of orthotopic transplantation on total, beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;33:417–422.

        18. Hunt BJ, Amin S, Halil O, Yacoub M. The prevalence, course, and characteristics of chronic anemia after heart and lung transplantation. Transplantation 1992;53:1251–1256.

        19. Dunn MJ, Crisp SJ, Rose ML, Taylor PM, Yacoub MH. Anti-endothelial antibodies and coronary artery disease after cardiac transplantation. Lancet 1992;339:1566–1570.

        20. Barbir M, Kushwaha S, Hunt B, Macken A, Thompson GR, Mitchell A, Robinson D, Yacoub M. Lipoprotein (a) and accelerated coronary artery disease in cardiac transplant recipients. Lancet1992;340:1500–1502.

        21. Amrani M, O'Shea J, Allen NJ, Harding SE, Jayakumar J, Pepper JR, Moncada S, Yacoub MH. Role of basal release of nitric oxide on coronary flow and mechanical performance of the isolated rat heart. J Physiol 1992;456:681–687.

        22. Sarsam MA, Yacoub M. Remodeling of the aortic valve anulus. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993;105:435–438.

        23. Latif N, Baker CS, Dunn MJ, Rose ML, Brady P, Yacoub MH. Frequency and specificity of antiheart antibodies in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy detected using SDS-PAGE and western blotting. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:1378–1384.

        24. Adams DH, Cochrane AD, Khaghani A, Smith JD, Yacoub MH. Retransplantation in heart-lung recipients with obliterative bronchiolitis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994;107:450–459.

        25. Stratton JR, Kemp GJ, Daly RC, Yacoub M, Rajagopalan B. Effects of cardiac transplantation on bioenergetic abnormalities of skeletal muscle in congestive heart failure. Circulation 1994;89:1624–1631.

        26. Crisp SJ, Dunn MJ, Rose ML, Barbir M, Yacoub MH. Antiendothelial antibodies after heart transplantation: the accelerating factor in transplant-associated coronary artery disease? J Heart Lung Transplant 1994;13:81–91 and 91–92.

        27. Allen SP, Chester AH, Dashwood MR, Tadjkarimi S, Piper PJ, Yacoub MH. Preferential vasoconstriction to cysteinyl leukotrienes in the human saphenous vein compared with the internal mammary artery. Implications for graft performance. Circulation 1994;90:515–524.

        28. Morris-Thurgood J, Cowell R, Paul V, Kalsi K, Seymour AM, Ilsley C, Mitchell A, Khaghani A, Yacoub M. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of paced linkage following heterotopic cardiac transplantation. Circulation 1994;90:2342–2347.

        29. Barbir M, Bowker T, Ludman PF, Mitchell AG, Wood D, Yacoub M. Ultrafast computed tomographic scanning for detection of coronary disease in cardiac transplant recipients. Am J Cardiol 1994;74:941–944.

        30. Cowell RP, Morris-Thurgood J, Coghlan JC, Ilsley CD, Mitchell AG, Khaghani A, Paul VE, Yacoub M. Effects of paced counterpulsation on exercise capacity and hemodynamics after heterotopic heart transplantation. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:415–417.

        31. Yacoub MH. Two hearts that beat as one. Circulation 1995;92:156–157.

        32. Petrou M, Wynne DG, Boheler KR, Yacoub MH. Clenbuterol induces hypertrophy of the latissimus dorsi muscle and heart in the rat with molecular and phenotypic changes. Circulation 1995;92:483–489.

        33. Smith JD, Rose ML, Pomerance A, Burke M, Yacoub MH. Reduction of cellular rejection and increase in longer-term survival after heart transplantation after HLA-DR matching. Lancet 1995;346:1318–1322.

        34. Habib FM, Springall DR, Davies GJ, Oakley CM, Yacoub MH, Polak JM. Tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase in dilated cardiomyopathy. Lancet 1996;347:1151–1155.

        35. Yacoub MH, Khan H, Stavri G, Shinebourne E, Radley-Smith R. Anatomic correction of the syndrome of prolapsing right coronary aortic cusp, dilatation of the sinus of Valsalva, and ventricular septal defect. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;113:253–261.

        36. Mankad P, Yacoub M. Influence of basal release of nitric oxide on systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;113:770–776.

        37. Petrou M, Bowles C, Yacoub M. Comparative study of the biomechanical performance of trained and untrained skeletal muscle. Cardiovasc Res 1997;33:583–592.

        38. Barbir M, Lazem F, Bowker T, Ludman P, Banner N, Mitchell A, Yacoub M. Determination of transplant-related coronary calcium detected by ultrafast computed tomography scanning. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1606–1609.

        39. Al-Mohanna F, Collison K, Parhar R, Kwaasi A, Meyer B, Saleh S, Allen S, al-Sedairy S, Stern D, Yacoub M. Activation of naïve xenogeneic but not allogeneic endothelial cells by human naïve neutrophils: a potential occult barrier to xenotransplantation. Am J Pathol 1997;151:111–120.

        40. Rechavia E, de Silva R, Kushwaha SS, Rhodes CG, Araujo LI, Jones T, Maseri A, Yacoub MH. Enhanced myocardial 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake after orthotopic heart transplantation assessed by positron emission tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:533–538.

        41. Yacoub M, Al-Kattan KM, Tadjkarimi S, Eren T, Khaghani A. Medium term results of direct bronchial arterial revascularisation using IMA for single lung transplantation (SLT with direct revascularisation). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1997;11:1030–1036.

        42. Wong K, Boheler KR, Petrou M, Yacoub MH. Pharmacological modulation of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy: changes in ventricular function, extracellular matrix, and gene expression. Circulation 1997;96:2239–2246.

        43. Mankad PS, Amrani M, Rothery S, Severs NJ, Yacoub MH. Relative susceptibility of endothelium and myocardial cells to ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Acta Physiol Scand 1997;161:103–112.

        44. Hornick P, Smith J, Pomerance A, Mitchell A, Banner N, Rose M, Yacoub M. Influence of acute rejection episodes, HLA matching, and donor/recipient phenotype on the development of ‘early’ transplant-associated coronary artery disease. Circulation 1997;96:148–153.

        45. Mikhail G, Givvs J, Richardson M, Wright G, Khaghani A, Banner N, Yacoub M. An evaluation of nebulized prostacyclin in patients with primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Eur Heart J 1997;18:1499–1504.

        46. Barton PJ, Townsend PJ, Brand NJ, Yacoub MH. Localization of the fast skeletal muscle troponin I gene (TNN12) to 11p15.5: genes for troponin I and T are organized in pairs. Ann Human Gen 1997;61:519–523.

        47. Wong K, Boheler KR, Bishop J, Petrou M, Yacoub MH. Clenbuterol induces cardiac hypertrophy with normal functional, morphological and molecular features. Cardiovasc Res 1998;37:115–122.

        48. Yacoub MH, Gehle P, Chandrasekaran V, Birks EJ, Child A, Radley-Smith R. Late results of a valve-preserving operation in patients with aneurysms of the ascending aorta and root. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998;115:1080–1090.

        49. Mikhail G, Chester AH, Gibbs JS, Borland JA, Banner NR, Yacoub MH. Role of vasoactive mediators in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:254–255.

        50. Lam KM, Oldenburg N, Khan MA, Gaylore V, Mikhail GW, Strouhal PD, Middeldorp JM, Banner N, Yacoub M. Significance of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the detection of human cytomegalovirus gene transcripts in thoracic organ transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 1998;17:555–565.

        51. Goodwin AT, Amrani M, Gray CC, Jayakumar J, Yacoub MH. Role of endogenous endothelin in the regulation of basal coronary tone in the rat. J Physiol 1998;511:549–557.

        52. Allen S, Khan S, Al-AlMohanna F, Batten P, Yacoub M. Native low density lipoprotein-induced calcium transients trigger VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 1998;101:1064–1075.

        53. Hafizi S, Wharton J, Morgan K, Allen SP, Chester AH, Catravas JD, Polak JM, Yacoub MH. Expression of functional angiotensin-converting enzyme and AT1 receptors in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts. Circulation 1998;98:2553–2559.

        54. Hornick PI, Mason PD, Yacoub MH, Rose ML, Batchelor R, Lechler RI. Assessment of the contribution that direct allorecognition makes to the progression of chronic cardiac transplant rejection in humans. Circulation 1998;97:1257–1263.

        55. Petrou M, Clarke S, Morrison K, Bowles C, Dunn M, Yacoub M. Clenbuterol increases stroke power and contractile speed of skeletal muscle for cardiac assist. Circulation 1999;99:713–720.

        56. Ludman PF, Lazem F, Barbir M, Yacoub M. Incidence and clinical relevance of coronary calcification detected by electron beam computed tomography in heart transplant recipients. Eur Heart J 1999;20:303–308.

        57. Goodwin AT, Amrani M, Marchbank AJ, Gray CC, Jayakumar J, Yacoub MH. Coronary vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 increases with age before and after ischaemia and reperfusion. Cardiovas Res 1999;41:554–562.

        58. Barton PJ, Cullen ME, Townsend PJ, Brand NJ, Mullen AJ, Norman DA, Bhavsar PK, Yacoub MH. Close physical linkage of human troponin genes: organization, sequence, and expression of the locus encoding cardiac troponin I and slow skeletal troponin T. Genomics 1999;57:102–109.

        59. Burton PB, Yacoub MH, Barton PJ. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor expression in human heart failure. A comparison with fetal development. Eur Heart J 1999;20:604–611.

        60. Owen VJ, Burton PB, Michel MC, Zolk O, Bohm, Pepper JR, Barton PJ, Yacoub MH, Harding SE. Myocardial dysfunction in donor hearts. A possible etiology. Circulation 1999;99:2565–2570.

        61. Warraich RS, Dunn MJ, Yacoub MH. Subclass specificity of autoantibodies against myosin in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: pro-inflammatory antibodies in DCM patients. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;259:255–261.

        62. Aklog L, Carr-White GS, Birks EJ, Yacoub MH. Pulmonary autograft versus aortic homograft for aortic valve replacement: interim results from a prospective randomized trial. J Heart Valve Dis 2000;9:176–188, 188–189.

        63. Bundy RE, Marczin N, Chester AH, Yacoub M. A redox-based mechanism for nitric oxide-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol 2000;129:1513–1521.

        64. Kilner PJ, Yang GZ, Wilkes AJ, Mohiaddin RH, Firmin DN, Yacoub MH. Asymmetric redirection of flow through the heart. Nature 2000;404:759–761.

        65. Birks EJ, Hunt D, Grieve L, Banner NR, Yacoub MH. A prospective study of plasma nitrates following human heart transplantation—relevance to myocardial function. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000;19:324–329.

        66. Oldenburg N, Lam KM, Khan MA, Top B, Tacken NM, McKie A, Mikhail GW, Meddeldorp JM, Wright A, Banner NR, Yacoub M. Evaluation of human cytomegalovirus gene expression in thoracic organ transplant recipients using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. Transplantation 2000;70:1209–1215.

        67. Carr-White GS, Afoke A, Birks EJ, Hughes S, O'Halloran A, Glennen S, Edwards S, Eastwood M, Yacoub MH. Aortic root characteristics of human pulmonary autografts. Circulation 2000;102:III15–III21.

        68. Suzuki K, Smolenski RT, Jayakumar J, Murtuza B, Brand NJ, Yacoub MH. Heat shock treatment enhances graft cell survival in skeletal myoblast transplantation to the heart. Circulation 2000;102:III16–III21.

        69. Birks EJ, Burton PB, Owen V, Mullen AJ, Hunt D, Banner NR, Barton PJ, Yacoub MH. Elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in myocardium and serum of malfunctioning donor hearts. Circulation 2000;102:III352–III358.

        70. Suzuki K, Brand NJ, Smolenski RT, Jayakumar J, Murtuza B, Yacoub MH. Development of a novel method for cell transplantation through the coronary artery. Circulation 2000;102:III359–III364.

        71. Birks EJ, Yacoub MH, Burton PS, Owen V, Pomerance A, O'Halloran A, Banner NR, Khaghani A, Latif N. Activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways in dysfunctional donor hearts. Transplantation 2000;70:1498–1506.

        72. Sammut IA, Latif N, Smolenski RT, Bates TE, Yacoub MH. Enhancement of cardiac mitochondrial enzymatic activities following heat stress. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000;19:92.

        73. Latif N, Khan MA, Birks E, O'Farrell A, Westbrook J, Dunn MJ, Yacoub MH. Upregulation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in end stage heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1769–1777.

        74. Taylor PM, Allen SP, Yacoub MH. Phenotypic and functional characterization of interstitial cells from human heart valves, pericardium and skin. J Heart Valve Dis 2000;9:150–158.

        75. Melina G, Rubens MB, Birks EJ, Bizzarri F, Khaghani A, Yacoub MH. A quantitative study of calcium deposition in the aortic wall following Medtronic Freestyle compared with homograft aortic root replacement. A prospective randomized trial. J Heart Valve Dis 2000;9:97–103.

        76. Swerdlow AJ, Higgins CD, Hunt BJ, Thomas JA, Burke MM, Crawford DH, Yacoub MH. Risk of lymphoid neoplasia after cardiothoracic transplantation. A cohort study of the relation to Epstein-Barr virus. Transplantation 2000;69:897–904.

        77. Kilner PJ, Yang GZ, Wilkes AJ, Mohiaddin RH, Firmin DN, Yacoub MH. Asymmetric redirection of flow through the heart. Nature 2000;404:759–761.

        78. Suzuki K, Murtuza B, Smolenski RT, Sammut IA, Suzuki N, Kaneda Y, Yacoub MH. Cell transplantation for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction using vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing skeletal myoblasts. Circulation 2001;104:1207–1212.

        79. Suzuki K, Brand NJ, Allen S, Khan MA, Farrell AO, Murtuza B, Oakley RE, Yacoub MH. Overexpression of connexin 43 in skeletal myoblasts: relevance to cell transplantation to the heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;122:759–766.

        80. Owen VJ, Burton PB, Mullen AJ, Birks EJ, Barton P, Yacoub MH. Expression of RGS3, RGS4 and Gi alpha 2 in acutely failing donor hearts and end-stage heart failure. Eur Heart J 2001;22:1015–1020.

        81. Hon JK, Steendijk P, Khan H, Wong K, Yacoub M. Acute effects of pulmonary artery banding in sheep on right ventricle pressure-volume relations: relevance to the arterial switch operation. Acta Physiol Scand 2001;172:97–106.

        82. Goodwin AT, Smolenski RT, Gray CC, Jayakumar J, Amrani M, Yacoub MH. Role of endogenous endothelin on coronary reflow after cardioplegic arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;122:1167–1173.

        83. Carr-White GS, Kilner PJ, Hon JK, Rutledge T, Edwards S, Burman ED, Pennell DJ, Yacoub MH. Incidence, location, pathology, and significance of pulmonary homograft stenosis after the Ross operation. Circulation 2001;104:I16–I20.

        84. Birks EJ, Latif N, Owen V, Bowles C, Felkin LE, Mullen AJ, Khaghani A, Barton PJ, Polak JM, Pepper JR, Banner NR, Yacoub MH. Quantitative myocardial cytokine expression and activation of the apoptotic pathway in patients who require left ventricular assist devices. Circulation 2001;104:233–240.

        85. Batten P, McCormack AM, Rose ML, Yacoub MH. Valve interstitial cells induce donor-specific T-cell anergy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;122:129–135.

        86. Smolenski RT, Raisky O, Slominska EM, Abunasra H, Kalsi KK, Jayakumar J, Suzuki K, Yacoub MH. Protection from reperfusion injury following cardiac transplantation by inhibition of adenosine metabolism and nucleotide precursor supply. Circulation 2001;104:1246–1252.

        87. Suzuki K, Murtuza B, Smolenski RT, Sammut IA, Suzuki N, Kaneda Y, Yacoub MH. Overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist provides cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with reduction in apoptosis. Circulation 2001;104:1308–1313.

        88. Jayakumar J, Suzuki K, Sammut IA, Smolenski RT, Khan M, Latif N, Yacoub MH. Heat shock protein 70 gene transfection protects mitochondrial and ventricular function against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Circulation 2001;104:1303–1307.

        89. Yacoub MH. A novel strategy to maximize the efficacy of left ventricular assist devices as a bridge to recovery. Eur Heart J 2001;22:534–540.

        90. Melina G, Rajappan K, Amrani M, Khaghani A, Pennell DJ, Yacoub MH. Aortic distensibility after aortic root replacement assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Heart Valve Dis 2002;11:67–74.

        91. Al-Bustami MH, Amrani M, Chester AH, Ilsley CJ, Yacoub MH. In vivo early and mid-term flow-mediated endothelial function of the radial artery used as a coronary bypass graft. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:573–577.

        92. Suzuki K, Murtuza B, Heslop L, Morgan JE, Smolenski RT, Suzuki N, Partridge TA, Yacoub MH. Single fibers of skeletal muscle as a novel graft for cell transplantation to the heart. J Thorac Cardiovascular Surg 2002;123:984–992.

        93. Taylor PM, Allen SP, Dreger SA, Yacoub MH. Human cardiac valve interstitial cells in collagen sponge: a biological three-dimensional matrix for tissue engineering. J Heart Valve Dis 2002;11:298–307.