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Edward David Frohlich, MD: a conversation with the editor*

        Edward Frohlich was born in New York City on September 10, 1931, and his first few years were spent in that city. At age 12, he and his family moved to Washington, DC, where they resided until 1948 when they moved to post-World War II Berlin, Germany. There, Ed graduated in 1948 as salutatorian of his high school class of American dependent students. He graduated from Washington and Jefferson College in Washington, Pennsylvania, cum laude in 1952, and from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore in 1956. His internship and first-year residency in internal medicine were at the District of Columbia General Hospital in the Georgetown program. He then spent a year in cardiovascular research with Dr. Edward D. Freis in Washington, DC, and then completed his last year of residency at Georgetown University Hospital in 1960. After 2 years in the US Army Medical Research Laboratory in Fort Knox, Kentucky, he moved to Chicago, in 1962, where he joined the faculty at Northwestern University Medical School as a Veterans Administration Clinical Investigator and chief of the hypertension clinic at the Veteran's Administration Research Hospital. In 1964, he joined the staff of the Cleveland Clinic's Research Division, where he remained until 1969, when he moved to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, as Professor of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology and Biophysics and Director of the Hypertension Section of the Department of Medicine of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. In 1976, he moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, as Vice President for Education and Research and head of the section of hypertensive diseases of the Ochsner Clinic. In 1985, he was named Vice President for Academic Affairs and Alton Ochsner Distinguished Scientist at that institution.Figure 1
        Figure thumbnail GR1
        FIGURE 1EDF at age 10, taken in a photo booth as a present for his mother.
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        Further reading

        Selected publications of EDF selected by EDF

        1. Frohlich ED, Wilson I, Schnaper HW, Freis ED. Hemodynamic alterations in hypertensive patients due to chlorothiazide. N Engl J Med 1960;262:1261–1263.

        2. Scott JB, Frohlich ED, hardin RA, Haddy FJ. Na+, K+, Ca++, and Mg++ action on coronary vascular resistance in the dog heart. Am J Physiol 1961;201:1095–1100.

        3. Frohlich ED. Local effect of adenosine mono-, di-, and triphosphate vessel resistance. Am J Physiol 1963;204:28–30.

        4. Frohlich ED. Vascular effects of Krebs intermediate metabolites. Am J Physiol 1965;208:149–153.

        5. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Ulrych M, Dustan HP, Page IH. Tilt test for investigation of a neural component in hypertension and its correlation with clinical characteristics. Circulation 1967;36:387–393.

        6. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP, Page IH. The paradox of beta- adrenergic blockage in hypertension. Circulation 1968;37:417–423.

        7. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP. Hyperdynamic beta-adrenergic circulatory state: increased beta receptor responsiveness. Arch Intern Med 1969;123:1–7.

        8. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP. Re-examination of the hemodynamics of hypertension. Am J Med Sci 1969;257:9–23.

        9. Tarazi RC, Dustan HP, Frohlich ED, Gifford RW Jr, Hoffman GC. Plasma volume and chronic hypertension. Relationship to arterial pressure levels in different hypertensive diseases. Arch Intern Med 1970;125:835–842.

        10. Frohlich ED, Kozul VJ, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP. Physiological comparison of labile and essential hypertension. Circ Res 1970;27:55–69.

        11. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents (member). Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. II. Results in patients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114 mm Hg. JAMA 1970;213:1143–1152.

        12. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP. Hemodynamic and functional mechanisms in two renal hypertensions: arterial and pyelonephritis. Am J Med Sci 1971;261:189–195.

        13. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP. Clinical-physiological correlations in the development of hypertensive heart disease. Circulation 1971;44:446–455.

        14. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents (member). Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. III. Influence of age, diastolic pressure, and prior cardiovascular disease; further analysis of side effects. Circulation 1972;45:991–1004.

        15. Pfeffer MA, Frohlich ED. Electromagnetic flowmetry in anesthetized rats. J Appl Physiol 1972;33:137–140.

        16. Pfeffer MA, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamic and myocardial function in young and old normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res 1973;32:28–38.

        17. Emery AC Jr, Whitcomb WH, Frohlich ED. “Stress” polycythemia and hypertension. JAMA 1974;229:159–162.

        18. Pfeffer MA, Frohlich ED, Pfeffer JM, Weiss AK. Pathophysiological implications of the increased cardiac output of young spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circ Res 1974;34:235–244.

        19. Adamopoulos PN, Chrysanthakopoulis SG, Frohlich ED. Systolic hypertension: nonhomogeneous diseases. Am J Cardiol 1975;36:697–701.

        20. Chrysant SG, Frohlich ED, Adamopoulos PN, Stein PD, Whitcomb WH, Allen EW, Neller G. Pathophysiologic significance of “stress” or relative polycythemia in essential hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1976;37:1069–1072.

        21. Nishiyama K, Nishiyama A, Frohlich ED. Regional blood flow in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol 1976;230:691–698.

        22. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer JM, Frohlich ED. Pumping ability of the hypertrophying left ventricle of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Cir Res 1976;38:423–429.

        23. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer JM, Weiss AK, Frohlich ED. Development of SHR hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy during prolonged beta blockade. Am J Physiol 1977;232:639–644.

        24. Dunn FG, Chandaratna P, de Calvalho JGR, Basta LL, Frohlich ED. Pathophysiologic assessment of hypertensive heart disease with echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1977;39:789–795.

        25. Veterans Administration-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Study Group for Cooperative Studies on Antihypertensive Therapy: Mild Hypertension (member). Treatment of mild hypertension: preliminary results of a two-year feasibility trial. Cir Res 1977;25:180–187.

        26. Tsuchiya M, Walsh GM, Frohlich ED. Systemic hemodynamic effects of microspheres in conscious rats. Am J Physiol 1977;233:617–621.

        27. Dunn FG, de Carvalho JGR, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamic, reflexive, and metabolic alterations induced by acute and chronic timolol therapy in hypertensive man. Circulation 1978;57:140–144.

        28. Trippodo NC, Walsh GM, Frohlich ED. Fluid volumes during onset of spontaneous hypertension in rats. Am J Physiol 1978;235:52–55.

        29. Messerli FH, de Carvalho JGR, Christie B, Frohlich ED. Systemic and regional hemodynamics in low, normal, and high cardiac output in borderline hypertension. Circulation 1978;58:441–448.

        30. Pfeffer MA, Ferrell BA, Pfeffer JM, Weiss AK, Fishbein MC, Frohlich ED. Ventricular morphology and pumping ability of exercised spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol 1978;235:193–199.

        31. Chrysant SG, Walsh GM, Kem DC, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamic and metabolic evidence of salt sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Kidney Int 1979;15:33–37.

        32. Chrysant SG, Danisa K, Kem DC, Dillard BL, Smith WJ, Frohlich ED. Racial differences in pressure, volume and renin interrelationships in essential hypertension. Hypertension 1979;1:136–141.

        33. Dustan HP (chairman), Frohlich ED (co-chairman), Geller RG, Bevan RD, Bohr DF, Coleman TG, Frolich JC, Ganong W, Hawthorne EW, Kuchel O, et al. General recommendations of the Hypertension Task Force of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (Executive Summary). Hypertension 1979;1:150–151.

        34. Pfeffer MA, Pfeffer JM, Dunn FG, Nishiyama K, Tsuchiya M, Frohlich ED. Natural biventricular hypertrophy in normotensive rats. I. Physical and hemodynamic characteristics. Am J Physiol 1979;236:640–643.

        35. Messerli FH, de Carvalho JGR, Christie B, Frohlich ED. Essential hypertension in black and white subjects: hemodynamic findings and fluid volume state. Am J Med 1979;67:27–31.

        36. De Carvalho JGR, Messerli FH, Frohlich ED. Mitral valve prolapse and borderline hypertension. Hypertension 1979;1:518–522.

        37. Pfeffer JM, Pfeffer MA, Fishbein MC, Frohlich ED. Cardiac function and morphology with aging in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol 1979;237:461–468.

        38. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC. Is arterial pressure the sole factor responsible for hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy? Am J Cardiol 1979;44:959–963.

        39. Yamamoto J, Trippodo NC, Ishise S, Frohlich ED. Total vascular pressure-volume relationship in the conscious rat. Am J Physiol 1980;238:823–828.

        40. Messerli FH, Frohlich ED, Dreslinski GR, Suarez DH, Aristimuño GG. Serum uric acid in essential hypertension: an indicator of renal vascular involvement. Ann Intern Med 1980;93:817–821.

        41. Trippodo NC, Yamamoto J, Frohlich ED. Whole-body venous capacity and effective total tissue compliance in SHR. Hypertension 1981;3:104–112.

        42. Messerli FH, Christie B, de Carvalho JGR, Aristimuño GG, Suarez DH, Dreslinski GR, Frohlich ED. Obesity and essential hypertension. Hemodynamics, intravascular volume, sodium excretion, and plasma renin activity. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:81–85.

        43. Trippodo NC, Frohlich ED. Controversies in cardiovascular research: similarities of genetic (spontaneous) hypertension. Man and Rat. Circ Res 1981;48:309–319.

        44. Dreslinski GR, Frohlich ED, Dunn FG, Messerli FH, Suarez DH, Reisin E. Echocardiographic diastolic ventricular abnormality in hypertensive heart disease: atrial emptying index. Am J Cardiol 1981;47:1087–1090.

        45. Pegram BL, Ishise S, Frohlich ED. Effect of methyldopa, clonidine, and hydralazine on cardiac mass and haemodynamics in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cardiovasc Res 1982;16:40–46.

        46. Frohlich ED. Hemodynamic factors in the pathogenesis and maintenance of hypertension. Fed Proceed 1982;41:2400–2408.

        47. Frohlich ED. Achievements in hypertension: a 25-year overview. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;1:225–239.

        48. Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Oigman W, Dunn FG, Reisin E, Frohlich ED. Immediate hemodynamic effects of a new calcium-channel blocking agent (nitrendipine) in essential hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1983;51:783–786.

        49. Reisin E, Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Dreslinski GR, Dunn FG, Jones MM, Batson HM Jr. Cardiovascular changes after weight reduction in obesity hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:315–319.

        50. Dunn FG, Oigman W, Sundgaard-Riise K, Messerli FH, Ventura HO, Reisin E, Frohlich ED. Racial differences in cardiac adaptation to essential hypertension determined by echocardiographic indexes. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;1:1348–1351.

        51. Frohlich ED. Hemodynamics and others determinants in development of left ventricular hypertrophy: conflicting factors in its regression. Fed Proceed 1983;42:2709–2715.

        52. Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Reisin E, Dunn FG. The problem of obesity and hypertension. Hypertension 1983;5:71–78.

        53. Dunn FG, Oigman W, Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Kobrin I, Frohlich ED. Enalapril improves systemic and renal hemodynamics and allows regression of left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1984;53:105–108.

        54. Sesoko S, Pegram BL, Willis GW, Frohlich ED. DOCA-salt induced malignant hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 1984;2:49–54.

        55. Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Dunn, FG, Oigman W, Ventura HO, Sundgaard-Riise K. Greater renal vascular involvement in the black patient with essential hypertension. A comparison of systemic and renal hemodynamics in black and white patients. Mineral Electrolyte Metabolism 1984;10:173–177.

        56. The Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (member). The 1984 report of the Joint National Committee on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1045–1057.

        57. Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Frohlich ED, Kobrin I, Oigman W, Dunn FG, Carey RM. Immediate hemodynamic effects of a dopamine-receptor agonist (fenoldopam) in patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 1984;69:1142–1145.

        58. Frohlich ED, Cooper RA, Lewis EJ. Review of the overall experience of captopril in hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:1441–1444.

        59. Kobrin I, Oigman W, Kumar A, Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Frohlich ED, Dunn FG. Diurnal variation of blood pressure in elderly patients with essential hypertension. J Am Geriatrics Soc 1984;32:896–899.

        60. Cambotti LJ, Cole FE, Gerall AA, Frohlich ED, MacPhee AA. Neonatal gonadal hormones and blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol 1984;247:258–264.

        61. Frohlich ED. Clinical conference: hypertensive cardiovascular disease: a pathophysiological assessment. Hypertension 1984;6:934–939.

        62. Trippodo NC, Januscewicz A, Pegram BL, Cole FE, Kohashi N, Kardon MB, MacPhee AA, Frohlich ED. Rat platelets activate high molecular weight atrial natriuretic peptides in vitro. Hypertension 1985;7:905–912.

        63. Amodeo C, Kobrin I, Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Frohlich ED. Immediate and short-term hemodynamic effects of diltiazem in patients with hypertension. Circulation 1986;73:108–113.

        64. Kobrin I, Frohlich ED, Ventura HO, Messerli FH. Renal involvement follows cardiac enlargement in essential hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:272–276.

        65. Frohlich ED, Gifford R Jr, Horan M, Kaplan NM, Maxwell MH, Payne G, Roccella EJ, Shapiro AP, Weiss S, Bowler AE. Nonpharmacologic approaches to the control of high blood pressure. Report of the Subcommittee on nonpharmacologic therapy of the Joint National Committee on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure, 1984. Hypertension 1986;8:444–467.

        66. Tarazi RC, Frohlich ED. Is reversal of cardiac hypertrophy a desirable goal of antihypertensive therapy? Circulation 1987;75:113–117.

        67. Dunn FG, Ventura HO, Messerli FH, Kobrin I, Frohlich ED. Time course of regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients treated with atenolol. Circulation 1987;76:254–258.

        68. Frohlich ED. Diuretics in hypertension. J Hypertens 1987;5:43–49.

        69. Nunez BD, Frohlich ED, Garavaglia GE, Schmieder RE, Nunez MM. Serum uric acid in renovascular hypertension: reduction following surgical correction. Am J Med Sci 1987;294:419–422.

        70. Frohlich ED (chairman), Grim C, Labarthe DR, Maxwell MH, Perloff D, Weidman WH. Report of the Special Task Force Appointed by the Steering Committee, American Heart Association, Vol. 5 of Recommendations of the Human Blood Pressure Determination by Sphygmomanometer. Dallas, Texas: AHA Publication No. 70–1005(SA), 1987, pp. i-34; see also Hypertension 1988;11:209–222.

        71. The Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The 1988 Report of the Joint National Committee on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1023–1038.

        72. Frohlich ED. State of the art: The first Irvine H. Page Lecture: the mosaic of hypertension: past present, and future. J Hypertens 1988;6:2–11.

        73. Frohlich ED. State-of-the-art: hemodynamic differences in black and white patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1990;15:675–680.

        74. Frohlich ED, Sasaki O. Dissociation of changes in cardiovascular mass and performance with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:1492–1499.

        75. Frohlich ED. Is reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension beneficial? Hypertension 1991;18:133–138.

        76. Chien Y, Frohlich ED, MacPhee AA, Pegram BL. Quinaprilat increases total body vascular compliance in rats with myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1992;19:430–434.

        77. Frohlich ED, Apstein C, Chobanian AV, Devereux RB, Dustan HP, Dzau V, Fauad-Tarazi F, Horan MJ, Marcus M, Massie B, et al. The heart in hypertension. N Engl J Med 1992;327:998–1008.

        78. Frohlich ED, Sasaki O, Chien Y, Arita M. Changes in cardiovascular mass, left ventricular pumping ability, and aortic distensibility after calcium antagonist in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 1992:10:1369–1378.

        79. Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Blood Pressure (member). The 1992 Report of the Joint National Committee on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of blood pressure (JNC-V). Arch Intern Med 1993;153:154–183.

        80. Frohlich ED, Chien Y, Sesoko S, Pegram BL. Relationships between dietary sodium intake, hemodynamics and cardiac mass in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Am J Physiol 1993;264:30–34.

        81. Arita M, Horinaka S, Komatsu K, Frohlich ED. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy with different classes of drugs causes differing ventricular biochemical changes. J Hypertens 1993;11:354–355.

        82. Komatsu K, Frohlich ED, Ono H, Ono Y, Numabe A, Willis GW. Glomerular dynamics and morphology of aged SHR: effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Hypertension 1995;25:207–213.

        83. Ono H, Ono Y, Frohlich ED. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition in spontaneously hypertensive rats: systemic, renal, and glomerular hemodynamics. Hypertension 1995;26:249–255.

        84. Ono Y, Ono H, Frohlich ED. Hydrochlorothiazide exacerbates nitric oxide blockades nephrosclerosis with glomerular hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 1996;14:823–828.

        85. Frohlich ED, Arthur C. Corcoran memorial lecture: influence of nitric oxide and angiotensin II on renal involvement in hypertension. Hypertension 1997;29:188–193.

        86. Nunez E, Hosoya K, Susic D, Frohlich ED. Enalapril and losartan reduced cardiac mass and improved coronary hemodynamics in SHR. Hypertension 1997;29:519–524.

        87. The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (member). The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC-VI) on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2413–2446.

        88. Francischetti A, Ono H, Frohlich ED. Renoprotective effects of felodipine and/or enalapril in spontaneously hypertensive rats with and without L-NAME. Hypertension 1998;31:795–801.

        89. Susic D, Nunez E, Hosoya H, Frohlich ED. Coronary hemodynamics in aging spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. J Hypertens 1998:16:231–237.

        90. Susic D, Francischetti A, Frohlich ED. Prolonged L-arginine on cardiovascular mass and myocardial hemodynamics and collagen in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats and normal rats. Hypertension 1999;33:451–455.

        91. Susic D, Varagic J, Frohlich ED. Pharmacologic agents on cardiovascular mass, coronary dynamics and collagen in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 1999;17:1209–1215.

        92. Nakamura Y, Ono H, Frohlich ED. Differential effects of T- and L-type calcium antagonists on glomerular dynamics in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1999;34:273–278.

        93. Frohlich ED. Risk mechanisms in hypertensive heart disease. Hypertension 1999;34:782–789.

        94. Ono Y, Ono H, Matsuoka H, Fujimori T, Frohlich ED. Apoptosis, coronary arterial remodeling, and myocardial infarction after nitric oxide inhibition in SHR. Hypertension 1999;34:609–616.

        95. Nakamura Y, Ono H, Zhou X, Frohlich ED. Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition produce similar renoprotection in L-NAME/SHR rats. Hypertension 2001;37:1262–1267.

        96. Varagic J, Susic D, Frohlich ED. Coronary hemodynamic and ventricular responses to AT1 receptor inhibition in SHR interaction with AT2 receptors. Hypertension 2001;37:1399–1403.

        97. Ono H, Ono Y, Takanohashi A, Matsuoha H, Frohlich ED. Apoptosis and glomerular injury after prolonged nitric oxide synthase inhibition in SHR. Hypertension 2001;38:1300–1306.

        98. Susic D, Varagic J, Frohlich ED. Isolated systolic hypertension in elderly WKY's reversed with L-arginine and ACE inhibition. Hypertension 2001;38:1422–1426.

        99. Zhou X, Ono H, Ono Y, Frohlich ED: N- and L-type calcium channel antagonistic effects on glomerular dynamics in L-NAME rats. J Hypertens 2002; 20:993–1000.

        Books

        1. Frohlich ED, ed. Pathophysiology: Altered Regulatory Mechanisms in Disease. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Company, 1984:940.

        2. Frohlich ED, ed. Preventive Aspects of Coronary Heart Disease. In: Brest AN, editor-in-chief. Cardiovascular Clinics. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis, 1990:239.

        3. Frohlich ED, Subak-Sharp G. In: Frohlich ED, ed. Take Heart! Cut Your Inherited Risks of Heart Disease. New York: Crown Publishers Incorporated, 1990:168.

        4. Frohlich ED, ed. Hypertension: Evaluation and Treatment. Tokyo, Japan: Nankodo Co. Ltd, 2000:183.

        5. Frohlich ED, ed. Rypins' Basic Sciences Review. 18th Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:810.

        6. Frohlich ED, ed. Rypins' Questions & Answers for Basic Sciences Review. 18th Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:285 (w/CD Rom).

        7. Frohlich ED, ed. Rypins' Clinical Sciences Review. 18th Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:441 (w/CD Rom).

        Editorials

        1. Frohlich ED. Obituary—Solomon Papper, MD. Am J Med 1985;78:271–276.

        2. Frohlich ED. In memoriam: Robert C. Tarazi, MD, 1925–1986. Hypertension 1986;8:vii-viii.

        3. Frohlich ED. Cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension. N Engl J Med 1987;317:831–833.

        4. Frohlich ED, Dustan HP, Bumpus FM. Irvine H. Page: 1901–1991. The celebration of a leader. Hypertension 1991;18:443–445.

        5. Frohlich ED. Uric acid: a risk factor for coronary heart disease. JAMA 1993;270:378–379.

        6. Frohlich ED. In memoriam: Harriet Pearson Dustan. Hypertension 1999;34:162–163.

        7. Frohlich ED. In memoriam: Janice M. Pfeffer, PhD. Hypertension 2000;36:1.

        8. Frohlich ED. Treating hypertension—what are we to believe? N Engl J Med 2003;348:639–641.