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One-year follow-up of direct myocardial gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor-2 using naked plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid by way of thoracotomy in no-option patients*

      Abstract

      This phase I open label, dose-escalating study shows that gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor-2 naked deoxyribonucleic acid by direct myocardial injection by way of thoracotomy in patients with Canadian Cardiovascular Society class 3 or 4 angina is feasible and safe. The procedure is well tolerated, with few major adverse cardiac events at 1 year, and without complications directly related to gene expression. In this prospective, nonblinded study, the procedure is associated with clinical improvement; however, there was no angiographic evidence of angiogenesis and there is a great potential for a sham or placebo effect in the study patients. A randomized phase III trial is underway that will help determine the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor-2 gene transfer in “no-option” patients.
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