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Comparison of frequency of active infective endocarditis by echocardiography in patients with bacteremia with and without human immunodeficiency virus

      Bacteremia is common in patients who are positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to numerous immunologic defects present in this disease. Although there has been an impressive reduction in the incidence of bacteremia using highly active antiretroviral therapy, it continues to be responsible for increased morbidity and mortality.
      • Fichtenbaum C.J.
      • Dunagan W.C.
      • Powderly W.G.
      Bacteremia in hospitalized patients infected with the human immunodefiency virus a case-control study of risk factors and outcome.
      ,
      • Tumbarello M.
      • Tacconeli E.
      • Donati K.G.
      • Citton R.
      • Leone F.
      • Spanu T.
      • Cauda R.
      HIV-associated bacteremia how it has changed in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
      Clinicians caring for bacteremic HIV-positive patients are frequently confronted with the question of when to appropriately pursue the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Surprisingly, there are few published reports on the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for infective endocarditis in patients with HIV. This study compares the relative incidence of echocardiographically proved infective endocarditis in bacteremic or fungemic HIV-positive versus HIV-negative patients.
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