Preventing coronary events by optimal control of blood pressure and lipids in patients with the metabolic syndrome


      We estimated the coronary heart disease (CHD) events that are preventable by treatment of lipids and blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a contributor to coronary heart disease (CHD). Among patients aged 30 to 74 years (without diabetes or CHD) in the United States, MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. CHD events over a period of 10 years were estimated by Framingham algorithms. Events that could be prevented by statistically “controlling” blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to either normal or optimal levels according to national guidelines were calculated. Of 7.5 million men and 9.0 million women aged 30 to 74 years with MetS, approximately 1.5 million men and 0.45 million women, if untreated, developed CHD events in 10 years. In men and women, blood pressure control to normal levels “prevented” 28.1% and 12.5% of CHD events, respectively (p <0.01); control to optimal levels resulted in preventing 28.2% and 45.2% of events, respectively (p <0.01). Control of HDL cholesterol to normal levels resulted in preventing 25.3% of events in men and 27.3% in women; optimal control prevented 51.2% and 50.6% of events, respectively. Control of LDL cholesterol to normal levels prevented 9.3% of events in men and 9.8% of events in women; control to optimal levels prevented 46.2% and 38.1% of events (p <0.05), respectively. Control of all 3 risk factors to normal levels resulted in preventing 51.3% of events for men and 42.6% for women; control to optimal levels resulted in preventing 80.5% and 82.1% of events, respectively. Thus, many CHD events in patients with MetS may be preventable by nominal or optimal control of lipids and/or blood pressure.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Deedwania P.C.
        Clinical significance of cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome.
        Curr Controll Trials Cardiovascular Med. 2002; 3: 1-5
        • Ford E.S.
        • Giles W.H.
        • Dietz W.H.
        Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults.
        JAMA. 2002; 287: 356-359
        • Isomaa B.
        • Almgren P.
        • Tuomi T.
        • Forsen B.
        • Lahti K.
        • Nissen M.
        • Taskinen M.R.
        • Groop L.
        Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome.
        Diab Care. 2001; 24: 683-689
        • NCEP Expert Panel
        Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).
        JAMA. 2001; 285: 2486-2497
        • Joint National Committee on Prevention Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure
        The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure.
        Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157: 2413-2446
      1. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States: Volume I. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995

        • Wilson P.W.F.
        • D’Agostino R.B.
        • Levy D.
        • Belanger A.M.
        • Silbershatz H.
        • Kannel W.B.
        Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories.
        Circulation. 1998; 97: 1837-1847
        • Brown B.G.
        • Albers J.J.
        • Fisher L.D.
        Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B.
        N Engl J Med. 1990; 323: 1289-1298
        • Brown B.G.
        • Zhao X.-Q.
        • Chait A.
        • Fisher L.D.
        • Cheng M.C.
        • Morse J.C.
        • Dowdy A.A.
        • Marino E.K.
        • Golson E.L.
        • Alaupovic P.
        • Frohlich J.
        • Albers J.J.
        Simvastatin, and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 1583-1592