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Comparison of the effects of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and nitroglycerin on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in male volunteers

      Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is an organic nitrate that, like nitroglycerin (NTG), undergoes biotransformation to release its active metabolite nitric oxide or a nitric oxide adduct. Importantly, compared with other nitrates, PETN has been shown to have antioxidant properties and to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis.
      • Hacker A.
      • Muller S.
      • Meyer W.
      • Kojda G.
      The nitric oxide donor pentaerythritol tetranitrate can preserve endothelial function in established atherosclerosis.
      ,
      • Oberle S.
      • Schwartz P.
      • Abate A.
      • Schroder H.
      The antioxidant defense protein ferritin is a novel and specific target for pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in endothelial cells.
      Furthermore, animal studies and a recent report from our laboratory suggest that tolerance development does not occur during continuous therapy with PETN.
      • Mullenheim J.
      • Muller S.
      • Laber U.
      • Thamer V.
      • Meyer W.
      • Bassenge E.
      • Fink B.
      • Kojda G.
      The effect of high-dose pentaerythritol tetranitrate on the development of nitrate tolerance in rabbits (German).
      ,
      • Fink B.
      • Bassenge E.
      Unexpected, tolerance-devoid vasomotor and platelet actions of pentaerythrityl tetranitrate.
      ,
      • Dikalov S.
      • Fink B.
      • Skatchkov M.
      • Bassenge E.
      Comparison of glyceryl trinitrate-induced with pentaerythrityl tetranitrate-induced in vivo formation of superoxide radicals effect of vitamin C.
      ,
      • Jurt U.
      • Gori T.
      • Ravandi A.
      • Babaei S.
      • Zeman P.
      • Parker J.D.
      Differential effects of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and nitroglycerin on the development of tolerance and evidence of lipid peroxidation a human in vivo study.
      These effects are consistent with the finding that PETN therapy is not associated with increased plasma concentrations of markers of oxidative stress.
      • Jurt U.
      • Gori T.
      • Ravandi A.
      • Babaei S.
      • Zeman P.
      • Parker J.D.
      Differential effects of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and nitroglycerin on the development of tolerance and evidence of lipid peroxidation a human in vivo study.
      In the present report, we investigated the effects of continuous therapy with transdermal NTG compared with oral PETN on endothelium-mediated vasodilation.
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