Interview| Volume 91, ISSUE 7, P831-856, April 01, 2003

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Douglas peter zipes, md: a conversation with the editor*

        Doug Zipes was born in White Plains, New York, on February 27, 1939, and grew up in Pleasantville, New York. After attending public high school, he entered Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, and after 3 years entered Dartmouth Medical School. After 2 years there, he transferred to Harvard Medical School, where he graduated in 1964 cum laude. His internship and residency in internal medicine and his fellowship in cardiology were at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Following completion of the fellowship in 1968, he joined the Navy and was director of the cardiac care unit at the Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia. On completion of his military duty in 1970, he joined the cardiovascular faculty of Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, where he has been ever since. Within 6 years, he was a full professor. In 1994, he achieved the rank of Distinguished Professor, and in 1995 he became director of the cardiology division and the Krannert Institute of Cardiology.Fig. 1
        Figure thumbnail GR1
        FIGURE 1DPZ at the time of the interview.
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        Further reading

        Best publications as chosen by DPZ

        1. Zipes DP. The contribution of pacemaking to understanding the pathogenesis of arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 1971;28:211–222.

        2. Zipes DP, Knope RF. Electrical properties of the thoracic veins. Am J Cardiol 1972;29:372–376.

        3. Zipes DP, Mendez C, Moe GK. Evidence for summation and voltage dependency in rabbit atrioventricular nodal fibers Circ Res 1973;32:170–177.

        4. Zipes DP, Mendez C. Action of manganese ions and tetrodotoxin and A-V nodal transmembrane potentials in isolated rabbit hearts. Circ Res 1973;32:447–454.

        5. Morris SN, Zipes DP. His bundle electrocardiography during bi-directional tachycardia. Circulation 1973;48:32–36.

        6. Zipes DP, DeJoseph RL. Dissimilar atrial rhythms in man and dog. Am J Cardiol 1973;32:618–628.

        7. Zipes DP, Arbel E, Knope RF, Moe GK. Accelerated cardiac escape rhythms caused by ouabain intoxication. Am J Cardiol 1974;33:248–253.

        8. Zipes DP, Fischer JC: Effects of agents which inhibit the slow channel on sinus node automaticity and A-V conduction in the dog. Circ Res 1974;34:184–192.

        9. Zipes DP, DeJoseph RL, Rothbaum DA. Unusual properties of accessory pathways. Circulation 1974;49:1200–1211.

        10. Zipes DP, Mihalick MJ, Robbins GT. Effects of selective vagal stellate ganglion stimulation on atrial refractoriness. Cardiovasc Res 1974;8:647–655.

        11. Zipes DP, Fischer J, King RM, Nicoll A deB, Jolly WW. Termination of ventricular fibrillation in dogs by depolarizing a critical amount of myocardium. Am J Cardiol 1975;36:37–44.

        12. Elharrar V, Foster PR, Jirak TL, Zipes DP. Alterations in canine myocardial excitability during ischemia. Circ Res 1977;40:98–105.

        13. Foster PR, Elharrar V, Zipes DP. Accelerated ventricular escapes induced in the intact dog by barium, strontium and calcium. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1977;200:373–383.

        14. Elharrar V, Gaum WE, Zipes DP. Effect of drugs on conduction delay the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias induced by acute coronary occlusion in dogs. Am J Cardiol 1977;39:544–549.

        15. Zipes DP, Foster PR, Troup PJ, Pedersen DH. Atrial induction of ventricular tachycardia: re-entry versus triggered automaticity. Am J Cardiol 1979;44:1–8.

        16. Pedersen DH, Zipes DP, Foster PR, Troup PJ. Ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in a young population. Circulation 1979;60:988–997.

        17. Ruffy R, Lovelace DE, Mueller TM, Knoebel SB, Zipes DP. Relationship between changes in left ventricular bipolar electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow during acute coronary artery occlusion in the dog. Circ Res 1979;45:764–770.

        18. Nattel S, Rinkenberger RL, Lehrman LL, Zipes DP. Therapeutic blood lidocaine concentration after local anesthesia for cardiac electrophysiologic studies. N Engl J Med 1979;301:418–420.

        19. Martins JB, Zipes DP. Epicardial phenol interrupts refractory period responses to sympathetic but not vagal stimulation in canine left ventricular epicardium and endocardium. Circ Res 1980;47:33–40.

        20. Martins JB, Zipes DP. Effects of sympathetic and vagal nerves on recovery properties of the endocardium and pericardium of the canine left ventricle. Circ Res 1980;46:100–110.

        21. Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes DP. Different electrophysiological responses of canine endocardium and epicardium to combined hyperkalemia, hypoxia and acidosis. Circ Res 1980;46:814–825.

        22. Naccarelli GV, Prystowsky EN, Jackman WM, Heger JJ, Rinkenberger RL, Zipes DP. Repetitive ventricular response: prevalence and prognostic significance. Br Heart J 1981;46:152–158.

        23. Prystowsky EN, Jackman WM, Rinkenberger RL, Heger JJ, Zipes DP. Effect of autonomic blockade on ventricular refractoriness and atrioventricular nodal conduction in humans. Evidence supporting a direct cholinergic action on ventricular muscle refractoriness. Circ Res 1981;49:511–518.

        24. Nattel S, Pedersen DH, Zipes DP. Alterations in regional myocardial distribution and arrhythmogenic effects of aprindine produced by coronary artery occlusion in the dog. Cardiovasc Res 1981;15:80–85.

        25. Ruffy R, Lovelace DE, Knoebel SB, Zipes DP. Influence of secobarbital and alphachloralose, and of vagal and sympathetic interruption, on left ventricular activation after acute coronary artery occlusion in the dog. Circ Res 1981;48:884–894.

        26. Nattel S, Elharrar V, Zipes DP, Bailey JC. PH dependent electrophysiological effects of quinidine and lidocaine on canine Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 1981;48:55–61.

        27. Glassman Rd, Zipes DP. Site of antegrade and retrograde functional right bundle branch block in the intact canine heart. Circulation 1981;64:1277–1286.

        28. Heger JJ, Prystowsky EN, Jackman WM, Naccarelli GV, Warfel KA, Rinkenberger RL, Zipes DP. Amiodarone: clinical efficacy and electrophysiology during long-term therapy for recurrent ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1981;305:539–545.

        29. Gilmour RF Jr, Williams ES, Farmer BB, Zipes DP. Effects of carnitine and atractyloside on canine cardiac electrical activity. Am J Physiol 1981;241:505–512.

        30. Jackman WM, Zipes DP. Low-energy synchronous cardioversion of ventricular tachycardia using a catheter electrode in a canine model of sub acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1982;66:187–195.

        31. Zipes DP, Jackman WM, Heger JJ, Chilson DA, Browne KF, Naccarelli GV, Rahilly GT Jr, Prystowsky EN. Clinical transvenous cardioversion of recurrent life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias: low energy synchronized cardioversion of ventricular tachycardia and termination of ventricular fibrillation in patients using a catheter electrode. Am Heart J 1982;103:789–794.

        32. Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes DP. Electrophysiological response of vascularized hamster cardiac transplants to ischemia. Circ Res 1982;50:599–609.

        33. Browne KF, Zipes DP, Heger JJ, Prystowsky EN. The influence of autonomic nervous system on the QT interval in man. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:1099–1103.

        34. Prystowsky EN, Browne KF, Zipes DP. Intracardiac recording by catheter electrode of accessory pathway depolarization. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;1:468–470.

        35. Jackman WM, Prystowsky EN, Naccarelli GV, Fineberg NS, Rahilly GT, Heger JJ, Zipes DP. Reevaluation of enhanced AV nodal conduction: evidence to suggest a continuum of normal atrioventricular nodal physiology. Circulation 1983;67:441–448.

        36. Prystowsky EN, Naccarelli GV, Jackman WM, Rinkenberger RL, Heger JJ, Zipes DP. Enhanced parasympathetic tone shortens atrial refractoriness in man. Am J Cardiol 1983;51:96–100.

        37. Gilmour RF Jr, Heger JJ, Prystowsky EN, Zipes DP. Cellular electrophysiologic abnormalities of disease human ventricular myocardium. Am J Cardiol 1983;51:137–144.

        38. Barber MJ, Mueller TM Henry D, Felten SY, Zipes DP. Transmural myocardial infarction in the dog produces sympathectomy in noninfarcted myocardium. Circulation 1983;67:787–796.

        39. Takahashi N, Zipes DP. Vagal modulation of adrenergic effects on canine sinus and atrioventricular nodes. Am J Physiol 1983;13:775–781.

        40. Martins JB, Zipes DP, Lund DD. Distribution of local repolarization changes produced by efferent vagal stimulation in the canine ventricles. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;7:1191–1199.

        41. Prystowsky EN, Zipes DP. Inhibition in the human heart. Circulation 1983;68:707–713.

        42. Browne KR Jr, Prystowsky EN, Heger JJ, Chilson DA, Zipes DP. Prolongation of the Q-T interval in man during sleep. Am J Cardiol 1983;52:55–59.

        43. Chilson DA, Zipes DP, Heger JJ, Browne KF, Prystowsky EN. Functional bundle branch block: discordant response of right and left bundle branches to changes in heart rate. Am J Cardiol 1984;54:313–316.

        44. Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes DP. Evidence for prejunctional and post-junctional antagonism of the sympathetic neuroeffector junction by acetylcholine in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Am Coll Cardiol 1984;3:760–765.

        45. Evans JJ, Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes DP. The effects of lidocaine and quinidine on impulse propagation across the canine Purkinje-muscle junction during combined hyperkalemia, hypoxia, and acidosis. Circ Res 1984;55:185–196.

        46. Barber MJ, Mueller TM, Davies BG, Zipes DP. Phenol topically applied to canine left ventricular epicardium interrupts sympathetic but not vagal afferents. Circ Res 1984;55:532–544.

        47. Gilmour RF Jr, Evans JJ, Zipes DP. Purkinje-muscle coupling and endocardial response to hyperkalemia, hypoxia and acidosis. Am J Physiol 1984;247:303–311.

        48. Takahashi n, Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes DP. Overdrive suppression of conduction in the canine His Purkinje system following anterior septal artery occlusion. Circulation 1984;70:495–505.

        49. Zipes DP, Heger JJ, Miles WM, Mahomed Y, Brown JW, Spielman SR, Prystowsky EN. Early experience with the implantable cardioverter. N Engl J Med 1984;311:485–490.

        50. Skale BT, Kallok MJ, Prystowsky EN, Gill RM, Zipes DP. Inhibition of premature ventricular extrastimuli by subthreshold conditioning stimuli. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;5:133–140.

        51. Barber MJ, Mueller TM, Davies BG, Gill RM, Zipes DP: Interruption of sympathetic and vagal mediated afferent responses by transmural myocardial infarction. Circulation 1985;72:623–631.

        52. Takahashi N, Barber MJ, Zipes DP. Efferent vagal innervation of the canine ventricle. Am J Physiol 1985;284:89–97.

        53. Chilson DA, Peigh P, Mahomed Y, Zipes DP. Encircling endocardial incision interrupts efferent vagal-induced prolongation of endocardial and epicardial refractoriness in the dog. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;5:290–296.

        54. Prystowsky EN, Zipes DP. Post-vagal tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 1985;55:995–999.

        55. Gilmour RF Jr, Salata JJ, Zipes DP. Rate-related suppression and facilitation of conduction in isolated canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 1985;57:35–45.

        56. Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes Positive inotropic effect of acetylcholine in canine Purkinje fibers. Am J Physiol 1985;249:735–740.

        57. Chilson DA, Peigh PS, Mahomed Y, Waller BF, Zipes DP. Chemical ablation of ventricular tachycardia in the dog. Am Heart J 1986;111:1113–1118.

        58. Salata JJ, Gill RF Jr, Zipes DP. Effects of sympathetic tone on vagally-induced phasic changes in heart rate and A-V nodal conduction in the anesthetized dog. Circ Res 1986;58:584–594.

        59. Miles WM, Prystowsky EN, Heger JJ, Zipes DP. The implantable transvenous cardioverter: long-term efficacy and reproducible ventricular tachycardia induction. Circulation 1986;74:518–524.

        60. Inoue H, Zipes DP. Changes in atrial and ventricular refractoriness and in atrioventricular nodal conduction produced by combinations of vagal and sympathetic stimulation that result in a constant spontaneous sinus cycle length. Circ Res 1987;60:942–951.

        61. Gilmour RF Jr, Davis JR, Zipes DP. Overdrive suppression of conduction at the canine Purkinje-muscle junction. Circulation 1987;76:1388–1396.

        62. Inoue H, Zipes DP. Increased afferent vagal responses produced by epicardial application of nicotine on the canine posterior left ventricle. Am Heart J 1987;114:757–764.

        63. Miles WM, Klein LS, Minardo JD, Zipes DP. Two retrograde atrial responses from one ventricular complex in a patient with the permanent form of junctional reciprocating tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 1987;59:1004–1006.

        64. Inoue H, Zipes DP. Conduction over an isthmus of atrial myocardium in vivo. A model of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Circulation 1987;76:637–647.

        65. Kammerling JM, Green FJ, Watanabe AM, Inoue H, Barber MJ, Henry D, Zipes DP. Denervation supersensitivity of refractoriness in noninfarcted areas apical to transmural myocardial infarction. Circulation 1987;76:383–393.

        66. Inoue H, Zipes DP. Results of sympathetic denervation in the canine heart: supersensitivity that may be arrhythmogenic. Circulation 1987;75:877–887.

        67. Inoue H, Waller BF, Zipes DP. Intracoronary ethyl alcohol or phenol injection ablates aconitine-induced ventricular tachycardia in the dog. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;10:1342–1349.

        68. Inoue H, Skale B, Zipes DP. Effects of ischemia on cardiac afferent sympathetic and vagal reflexes in dogs. Am J Physiol 1988;255:26–35.

        69. Kaseda S, Zipes DP. Supersensitivity to acetylcholine of canine sinus and AV nodes after parasympathetic denervation. Am J Physiol 1988;24:534–539.

        70. Inoue H, Mahomed Y, Kovacs RJ, Zipes DP. Surgery for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome interrupts efferent vagal innervation to the left ventricle and to the atrioventricular node in the canine heart. Cardiovasc Res 1988;22:163–170.

        71. Minardo JD, Tuli MM, Mock BH, Weiner RE, Pride HP, Wellman HN, Zipes DP. Scintigraphic and electrophysiological evidence of canine myocardial sympathetic denervation and reinnervation produced by myocardial infarction or phenol application. Circulation 1988;78:1018–1019.

        72. Inoue H, Zipes DP. Time course of denervation of efferent sympathetic and vagal nerves after occlusion of the coronary artery in the canine heart. Circ Res 1988;62:1111–1120.

        73. Kaseda S, Zipes DP. Contraction-excitation feedback in the atria. A cause of changes in refractoriness. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11:1327–1336.

        74. Inoue H, Zipes DP. Cocaine induced supersensitivity and arrhythmogenesis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11:867–874.

        75. Ben-David J, Zipes DP. Differential response to right and left ansae subclaviae stimulation of early afterdepolarizations and ventricular tachycardia induced by cesium in dogs. Circulation. 1988;78:1241–1250.

        76. Bailie DX, Inoue H, Kaseda S, Ben-David J, Zipes DP. Magnesium suppression of early afterdepolarizations and ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by cesium in dogs. Circulation 1988;77:1395–1402.

        77. Miyazaki T, Zipes DP. Protection against autonomic denervation following acute myocardial infarction by preconditioning ischemia. Circ Res 1989;64:437–448.

        78. Stanton MS, Tuli MM, Radtke NL, Heger JJ, Miles WM, Mock BH, Burt RW, Wellman HN, Zipes DP. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction in humans detected noninvasively using I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidne. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;14:1519–1526.

        79. Miyazaki T, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Modulation of cardiac autonomic neurotransmission by epicardial superfusion: effects of hexamethonium and tetrodotoxin. Circ Res 1989;65:1212–1219.

        80. Miyazaki T, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Prostaglandins in the pericardial fluid modulate neural regulation of cardiac electrophysiologic properties. Circ Res 1990;66:163–175.

        81. Kaseda S, Zipes DP. Effects of alpha adrenergic stimulation and blockade on early afterdepolarizations and triggered activity induced by cesium in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1990;1:31–40.

        82. Gilmour RF Jr, Zipes DP. Effects of myocardial ischemia on triggered activity in hamster atrial transplants. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1990;1:139–144.

        83. Klein LS, Miles WM, Zipes DP. Effect of atrioventricular interval during pacing or reciprocating tachycardia on atrial size, pressure and refractory period: contraction-excitation feedback in human atrium. Circulation 1990;82:60–68.

        84. Miyazaki T, Zipes DP. Presynaptic modulation of efferent sympathetic and vagal neurotransmission in the canine heart by hypoxia, high K+, low pH and adenosine: possible relevance to ischemia-induced denervation. Circ Res 1990;66:289–301.

        85. Ben-David J, Zipes DP. Alpha adrenoceptor stimulation and blockade modulates cesium-induced early afterdepolarizations and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in dogs. Circulation 1990;82:225–233.

        86. Miyazaki T, Zipes DP. Pericardial prostaglandin biosynthesis prevents the increased incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation produced by efferent sympathetic stimulation in dogs. Circulation 1990;82:1008–1019.

        87. Miyazaki T, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Prostaglandin modulation of early afterdepolarizations and ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by cesium chloride combined with efferent cardiac sympathetic stimulation in dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:1287–1295.

        88. Stanton MS, Zipes DP. Modulation of drug effects by regional sympathetic denervation and super sensitivity. Circulation. 1991;84:1709–1714.

        89. Ben-David J, Zipes DP, Ayers GM, Pride HP. Canine left ventricular hypertrophy predisposes to ventricular tachycardia induction by phase-2 early afterdepolarizations after administration of BAY K 8644. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20:1576–1584.

        90. Klein LS, Shih HT, Hackett K, Zipes DP, Miles WM. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease. Circulation 1992;85:1666–1674.

        91. Verckei A, Vera Z, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Atrioventricular nodal conduction rather than automaticity determines the ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1992;3:534–543.

        92. Warner MR, Kroeker TX, Zipes DP. Sympathetic stimulation and infusion modulate extra cellular potassium concentration during acute ischemia. Circ Res 1992;71:1078–1087.

        93. Mitrani R, Klein LS, Miles WM, Burt RW, Wellman HN, Zipes DP. Regional cardiac sympathetic denervation in patients with ventricular tachycardia in the absence of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:1344–1353.

        94. Warner MR, Wisler PL, Hodges TD, Watanabe AM, Zipes DP. Mechanisms of denervation super sensitivity in regionally enervated canine hearts. Am J Physiol 1993:815–820.

        95. Klein LS, Hackett FK, Zipes DP, Miles WM. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of “Mahaim fibers” at the tricuspid annulus. Circulation 1993;87:738–747.

        96. Rubart M, Pressler MI, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Electrophysiological mechanisms in a canine model of erythromycin-associated long QT syndrome. Circulation 1993;88:1832–1844.

        97. Ito M, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Defibrillating shocks delivered to the heart impair efferent sympathetic responsiveness. Circulation 1993;88:2661–2673.

        98. Ito M, Pride HP, Zipes DP. Glibenclamide enhances but pinacidil reduces attenuation in sympathetic responsiveness after acute coronary occlusion. Circ Res 1994;75:379–392.

        99. Ito M, Zipes DP. Efferent sympathetic and vagal innervation of the canine right ventricle. Circulation 1994;90:1459–1468.

        100. Zipes DP, Roberts D, for the PCD Investigators. Results of the International Study of the Implantable Pacemaker, Cardioverter-Defibrillator: a comparison of epicardial and endocardium lead systems. Circulation 1995;92:59–65.

        101. Elvan A, Pride HP, Eble JN, Zipes DP. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the atria reduces the inducibility and duration of atrial fibrillation in dogs. Circulation 1995;91:2235–2244.

        102. Koh GY, Soonpaa MH, Klug MG, Pride H, Cooper BJ, Zipes DP, Field LJ. Stable fetal cardiomyocyte grafts in the heart of dystrophic mice and dogs. J Clin Invest 1995;96:2034–2042.

        103. Ayers G, Rho TH, Ben-David J, Besch Jr HR, Zipes DP. Amiodarone installed into the canine pericardial sac migrates transmutably to produce electrophysiologic effects and suppress atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1996;7:713–721.

        104. Elvan A, Wylie K, Zipes DP. Pacing induced chronic atrial fibrillation impairs sinus node function in dogs. Circulation 1996;94:2953–2960.

        105. Rigden LB, Mitrani RD, Wellman HN, Klein LS, Miles WM, Zipes DP. Defibrillation shocks over epicardial patches produce sympathetic neural dysfunction in man. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1996;7:398–405.

        106. Satoh T, Zipes DP. Rapid rates during bradycardia prolong ventricular refractoriness and facilitate ventricular tachycardia induction with cesium in dogs. Circulation 1996;94:217–227.

        107. Satoh T, Zipes DP. Unequal atrial stretch in dogs increases dispersion of refractoriness conducive to developing atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1996;7:833–842.

        108. Fei L, Baron A, Henry DP, Zipes DP. Intrapericardial delivery of l-arginine reduces the increased severity of ventricular arrhythmias in dogs with acute coronary occlusion. Nitric oxide modulates sympathetic effects on ventricular electrophysiologic properties. Circulation 1997:96:4044–4049.

        109. The AVID Investigators: Zipes DP, Wyse DG, Friedman PL, Epstein AE, Hallstrom AP, Greene L, Schron EB, Domanski M. A comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated after near-fatal ventricular arrhythmias. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1576–1583.

        110. Elvan A, Rubart M, Zipes DP. Nitric oxide modulates autonomic effects on spontaneous sinus discharge rate and atrioventricular nodal conduction in open chest anesthetized dogs. Am J Physiol 1997;272:263–271.

        111. Elvan A, Huang X, Pressler M, Zipes DP. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the atria eliminates pacing induced sustained atrial fibrillation and reduces connexin 43 in dogs. Circulation 1997;96:1675–1685.

        112. Chiou CW, Eble JN, Zipes DP. Efferent vagal innervation of the canine atria, sinus and atrioventricular nodes: the third fat pad. Circulation 1997;95:2573–2584.

        113. Sih HJ, Berbari EJ, Zipes DP. Epicardial maps of atrial fibrillation after linear ablation lesions. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1997;8:1046–1054.

        114. Krebs ME, Szwed JM, Shinn T, Miles WM, Zipes DP. Short term rapid ventricular pacing prolongs ventricular refractoriness in patients. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:1036–1042.

        115. Chiou C-W, Zipes DP. Selective vagal denervation of the atria eliminates heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity while preserving ventricular innervation. Circulation 1998;98:360–368.

        116. Biermann M, Rubart M, Moreno A, Wu J, Josiah-Durant A, Zipes DP. Differential effects of cytochalasin D and 2, 3-butanedione monoxime on isometric twitch force and tans membrane action potentials in isolated ventricular muscle. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:1348–1357.

        117. Bonner M, Mehra R, Zipes DP. Lead fixation achieved with RF energy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:1285–1290.

        118. Olgin J, Sih HJ, Hanish S, Jayachandran JV, Zhen QH, Winkle W, Mulholland GK, Zipes DP, Hutchins G. Heterogeneous atrial denervation creates substrate for sustained atrial fibrillation. Circulation 1998;98:2608–2614.

        119. Satoh T, Zipes DP. Cesium-induced atrial tachycardia degenerating into atrial fibrillation. Atrial torsades de pointes? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:970–975.

        120. Wu J, Biermann M, Rubart M, Zipes DP. Cytochalasin D as the excitation-contraction uncoupler for optically mapping action potentials in wedges of ventricular myocardium. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:1336–1347.

        121. Elvan A, Zipes DP. Right ventricular infarction causes heterogeneous autonomic denervation of the viable peri-infarct area. Circulation 1998;97:484–492.

        122. Huang X, Sandusky GE, Zipes DP. Heterogeneous loss of connexin 43 protein in ischemia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:79–91.

        123. Hutchins GD, Chen T, Carlson KA, Fain RL, Winkle W, Varrek T, Mock BH, Zipes DP. PET imaging of oxidative metabolism abnormalities in sympathetically enervated canine myocardium. J Nuclear Med 1999;10:79–91.

        124. Fei L, Wrobleski D, Groh W, Duffin EG, Vetter A, Zipes DP. Effects of multi-site ventricular pacing on cardiac function in normal dogs and dogs with heart failure. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:935–946.

        125. Wu J, Zipes DP. Effects of spacial segmentation in the continuous model of excitation propagation in cardiac muscle. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:965–972.

        126. Al-Sheikh T, Allen KB, Straka S, Heimansohn DA, Fain RL, Hutchins GD, Sawada SG, Zipes DP, Engelstein ED. Cardiac sympathetic denervation after transmyocardial laser revisualization. Circulation 1999;100:135–140.

        127. Groh WJ, Boschee SA, Engelstein ED, Miles WM, Burton ME, Foster PR, Crevey BJ, Zipes DP. Interactions between electronic article surveillance systems and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Circulation 1999;100:387–392.

        128. Rubart M, Lopshire JC, Fineberg N, Zipes DP. Changes in left ventricular depolarization and ion channel currents following a transient rate increase superimposed on bradycardia in anesthetized dogs. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2000;11:652–664.

        129. Sih HJ, Zipes DP, Berbari EJ, Adams DE, Olgin JE. Differences in organization between acute and chronic atrial fibrillation in dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:924–931.

        130. Jayachandran JV, Zipes DP, Weksler J, Olgin JE. Role of the Na+/H+ exchanger in short-term atrial electrophysiological remodeling. Circulation 2000;101:1861–1866.

        131. Wu J, Zipes DP. Transmural reentry during global acute ischemic and reperfusion in canine ventricular muscle. Am J Physiol 2001;280:2717–2725.

        132. Altemose GT, Zipes DP, Weksler J, Miller JMM, Olgin JE. Inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger delays the development of rapid pacing induced atrial contractile dysfunction. Circulation 2001;103:762–768.

        133. Hadian D, Zipes DP, Olgin JE, Miller JM. Short-term rapid atrial pacing produces electrical remodeling of sinus node function to humans. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 200;13:584–586.

        134. Miyata A, Dowell JD, Zipes DP, Rubart M. Rate-dependent [K+]0 accumulation in canine right atria in vivo: electrophysiological consequences. Am J Physiol 2002;283:506–517.

        135. Olgin JE, Takahashi T, Wilson E, Verecki A, Zipes DP. Effects of thoracic spinal cord stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation of the sinus and AV nodes. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2002;13:475–481.

        136. Miyata A, Zipes DP, Rubart M. KB-R7943 prevents acute, atrial fibrillation-induced shortening of atrial refractoriness in anesthetized dogs. Circulation 2002;106:1410–1419.

        137. Wu J, Zipes DP, Transmural reentry triggered by epicardial and not endocardium stimulation during acute ischemic in canine ventricular muscle. Am J Physiol 2002;283:H2004–H2011.