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Leslie david hillis, md: a conversation with the editor*

        David Hillis was born in Tyler, Texas, on November 25, 1945, and that is where he grew up. He attended public high school, where he was an all-A student and a star athlete in both football and baseball. He graduated from Columbia College in 1967 with a major in history, took a year of post-graduate work at the University of Texas, and graduated from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1972. His internship and residency in internal medicine was at Parkland Memorial Hospital of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, and the last of those 3 years he served as chief resident. His 3-year fellowship in cardiology was at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital of Harvard Medical School. With that completed in 1978, he returned to Dallas, Texas, and joined the faculty of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School as director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory, where he has been ever since. By 1988, he was a full professor of internal medicine, and 4 years thereafter he had an endowed chair. Currently, he is the James M. Wooten Chair in Cardiology, Associate Director of the Cardiology Division, and Vice Chairman of the Department of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hillis has written 323 publications, most of which are in peer-reviewed medical journals. In addition to his highly productive clinical work, he has received numerous outstanding teacher awards in both the cardiovascular division and in the department of medicine. He is a major force at his medical center. He has been the husband of Nancy Addington Hillis for 34 years. Additionally, he is a great guyFigure 1.
        Figure thumbnail GR1
        FIGURE 1LDH during the interview.
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        Further reading

        Ldhs best publications as selected by LDH

        1. Hillis LD, Braunwald E. Myocardial ischemia. N Engl J Med 1977;296:971A–978;1034–1041;1093–1096.

        2. Hillis LD, Braunwald E. Coronary artery spasm. N Engl J Med 1978;299:695–702.

        3. Hirsh PD, Hillis LD, Campbell WB, Firth BG, Willerson JT. Release of prostaglandins and thromboxane into the coronary circulation in patients with ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med 1981;304:685–691.

        4. Johnson SM, Mauritson DR, Willerson JT, Hillis LD. A controlled trial of verapamil for Prinzmetal’s variant angina. N Engl J Med 1981;304:862-866.

        5. Winniford MD, Filipchuk N, Hillis LD. Alpha-adrenergic blockade for variant angina: a long-term, double-blind, randomized trial. Circulation 1983;67:1185–1188.

        6. Nicod P, Rehr R, Winniford MD, Campbell WB, Firth BG, Hillis LD. Acute systemic and coronary hemodynamic and serologic responses to cigarette smoking in long-term smokers with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1984;4:96–-971.

        7. Winniford MD, Jackson J, Malloy CR, Rehr RB, Campbell WB, Hillis LD. Does indomethacin attenuate the coronary vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin? J Am Coll Cardiol 19844:1114–1117.

        8. TIMI Study Group. The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trial. Phase I findings. N Engl J Med 1985;312:932–936.

        9. Hillis LD, Winniford MD, Jackson JA, Firth BG. Measurement of left-to-right intracardiac shunting in adults: oximetric versus indicator dilution techniques. Catheter Cardiovas Diag 1985;11:467–472.

        10. Hillis LD, Firth BG, Winniford MD. Analysis of factors affecting the variability of Fick versus indicator dilution measurements of cardiac output. Am J Cardiol 1985;56:764–768.

        11. Winniford MD, Kennedy PL, Wells PJ, Hillis LD. Potentiation of nitroglycerin-induced coronary dilatation by N-acetylcysteine. Circulation 1986;73:138–142.

        12. Winniford MD, Wheelan KR, Kremers MS, Ugolini V, van den Berg E Jr, Niggemann EH, Jansen DE, Hillis LD. Smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction in patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease: evidence for adrenergically mediated alteration in coronary artery tone. Circulation 1986;73:622–627.

        13. Hillis LD, Firth BG, Winniford MD. Comparison of thermodilution and indocyanine green dye in low cardiac output or left-sided regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 1986;57:1201–1202.

        14. Hillis LD, Firth BG, Winniford MD. Variability of right-sided cardiac oxygen saturations in adults with and without left-to-right intracardiac shunting. Am J Cardiol 1986’58:129–132.

        15. Winniford MD, Jansen DE, Reynolds GA, Apprill P, Black WH, Hillis LD. Cigarette smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and prevention by calcium antagonists and nitroglycerin. Am J Cardiol 1987;59:203–207.

        16. Niggemann EH, Ma PTS, Sunnergren KP, Winniford MD, Hillis LD. Detection of intracardiac left-to-right shunting in adults: a prospective analysis of the variability of the standard indocyanine green technique in patients without shunting. Am J Cardiol 1987;60:355–357.

        17. May DC, Popma JJ, Black WH, Schaefer S, Lee HR, Levine BD, Hillis LD. In vivo induction and reversal of nitroglycerin tolerance in human coronary arteries. N Engl J Med 1987;317:805–809.

        18. TIMI Research Group. Immediate vs delayed catheterization and angioplasty following thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. TIMI IIA results. JAMA 1988;260:2849–2858.

        19. TIMI Study Group. Comparison of invasive and conservative strategies after treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction: results of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trial. N Engl J Med 1989;320:618–627.

        20. Lange RA, Moore DM Jr, Cigarroa RG, Hillis LD. Use of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure to assess severity of mitral stenosis: is true left atrial pressure needed in this condition? J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:825–829.

        21. Cigarroa RG, Lange RA, Williams RH, Bedotto JB, Hillis LD. Underestimation of cardiac output by thermodilution in patients with tricuspid regurgitation. Am J Med 1989;86:417–420.

        22. Cigarroa RG, Lange RA, Williams RH, Hillis LD. Dosing of contrast material to prevent contrast nephropathy in patients with renal disease. Am J Med 1989;86:649–652.

        23. Cigarroa RG, Lange RA, Hillis LD. Prognosis after acute myocardial infarction in patients with and without residual anterograde coronary blood flow. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:155–160.

        24. Cigarroa RG, Lange RA, Hillis LD. Oximetric quantitation of intracardiac left-to-right shunting: limitations of the Qp/Qs ratio. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:246–247.

        25. Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Yancy CW Jr, Willard JE, Popma JJ, Sills MN, McBride W, Kim AS, Hillis LD. Cocaine-induced coronary artery vasoconstriction. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1557–1562.

        26. Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Hillis LD. Influence of residual antegrade coronary blood flow on survival after myocardial infarction in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Coronary Art Dis 1990;65:59–63.

        27. Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Wells PJ, Kremers MS, Hillis LD. Influence of anterograde flow in the infarct artery on the incidence of late potentials after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:554–558.

        28. Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Flores ED, McBride W, Kim AS, Wells PJ, Bedotto JB, Danziger RS, Hillis LD. Potentiation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction by beta-adrenergic blockade. Ann Int Med 1990;112:897–903.

        29. Flores ED, Lange RA, Bedotto JB, Danziger RS, Hillis LD. Assesment of the sensitivity of hydrogen inhalation in the detection of left-to-right shunting. Cathet Cardiovas Diag 1990;20:94–98.

        30. Flores ED, Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Hillis LD. Effect of cocaine on coronary artery dimensions in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease: enhanced vasoconstriction at sites of significant stenoses. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:74–79.

        31. Hillis LD, Forman S, Braunwald E, and TIMI Phase II coinvestigators. Risk stratification before thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:313–315.

        32. Glamann DB, Lange RA, Hillis LD. Beneficial effect of long-term beta blockade after myocardial infarction in patients without anterograde flow in the infarct artery. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:150–154.

        33. Brogan WC III, Lange RA, Kim AS, Mokiterno DJ, Hillis LD. Alleviation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction by nitroglycerin. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:581–586.

        34. Boehrer JD, Lange RA, Willard JE, Hillis LD. Influence of collateral filling of the occluded infarct-related coronary artery on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:10-12.

        35. Brogan WC III, Lange RA, Glamann DB, Hillis LD. Recurrent coronary vasoconstriction caused by intranasal cocaine: possible role for metabolites. Ann Int Med 1992;116:556–561.

        36. Mokiterno DJ, Lange RA, Willard JE, Boehrer JD, Hillis LD. Does restoration of antegrade flow in the infarct-related coronary artery days to weeks after myocardial infarction improve long-term survival? Coronary Artery Dis 1992;3:345–346.

        37. Boehrer JD, Moliterno DJ, Willard JE, Snyder RW II, Horton RP, Glamann DB, Lange RA, Hillis LD. Hemodynamic effects of intranasal cocaine in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20:90–93.

        38. Willard JE, Lange RA, Hillis LD. The use of aspirin in ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med 1992;327:175–181.

        39. Boehrer JD, Lange RA, Willard JE, Grayburn PA, Hillis LD. Advantages and limitations of methods to detect, localize, and quantitate intracardiac left-to-right shunting. Am Heart J 1992;124:448–455.

        40. Boehrer JD, Glamann DB, Lange RA, Willard JE, Brogan WC III, Eichhorn EJ, Grayburn PA, Anwar A, Hillis LD. Effect of coronary angioplasty of late potentials one to two weeks after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:1515–1519.

        41. Boehrer JD, Lange RA, Willard JE, Grayburn PA, Hillis LD. Advantages and limitations of methods to detect, localize, and quantitate intracardiac right-to-left and bidirectional shunting. Am Heart J 1993;10:33–36.

        42. Brogan WC III, Grayburn PA, Lange RA, Hillis LD. Prognosis after valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and a low transvalvular pressure gradient. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;21:1657–1660.

        43. Boehrer JD, Moliterno DJ, Willard JE, Hillis LD, Lange RA. Influence of labetalol on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction in man. Am J Med 1993;94:608–610.

        44. Moliterno DJ, Lange RA, Meidell RS, Willard JE, Leffert CC, Gerard RD, Boerwinkle E, Hobbs HH, Hillis LD. Relation of plasma lipoprotein(a) to infarct artery patency in survivors of myocardial infarction. Circulation 1993;88:935–940.

        45. Glamann DB, Lange RA, Willard JE, Landau C, Hillis LD. Hydrogen inhalation for detecting intracardiac left-to-right shunting in adults. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:711–714.

        46. Moliterno DJ, Lange RA, Willard JE, Boehrer JD, Hillis LD. Surgical restoration of antegrade flow in the occluded infarct artery improves long-term survival in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Coronary Artery Dis 1993;4:995–999.

        47. Moliterno DJ, Willard JE, Lange RA, Negus BH, Boehrer JD, Glamann DB, Landau C, Rossen JD, Winniford MD, Hillis LD. Coronary artery vasoconstriction induced by cocaine, cigarette smoking, or both. N Engl J Med 1994;73:454–459.

        48. Negus BH, Willard JE, Hillis LD, Glamann DB, Landau C, Snyder RW, Lange RA. Alleviation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction with intravenous verapamil. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:510–513.

        49. Snyder RW II, Glamann DB, Lange RA, Willard JE, Landau C, Negus BH, Hillis LD. Predictive value of prominent pulmonary arterial wedge V waves in assessing the presence and severity of mitral regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:568–570.

        50. Moliterno DJ, Lange RA, Gerard RD, Willard JE, Lackner C, Hillis LD. Influence of intranasal cocaine on plasma constituents associated with endogenous thrombosis and thrombolysis. Am J Med 1994;96:492–496.

        51. Pirwitz MJ, Lange RA, Willard JE, Landau C, Glamann DB, Hillis LD. Use of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure/end-systolic volume ration to predict symptomatic improvement with valve replacement in patients with aortic regurgitation and enlarged end-systolic volume. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24:1672–1677.

        52. Daniel WC, Lange RA, Willard JE, Landau C, Hillis LD. Oximetric versus indicator dilution techniques for quantitating intracardiac left-to-right shunting in adults. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:199–200.

        53. Pirwitz MJ, Willard JE, Landau C, Lange RA, Glamann DB, Kessler DJ, Foerster EH, Todd E, Hillis LD. Influence of cocaine, ethanol, or their combination on epicardial coronary arterial dimensions in humans. Arch Int Med 1995;155:1186–1191.

        54. Daniel WC, Pirwitz MJ, Horton RP, Landau C, Glamann DB, Snyder RW II, Willard JE, Wells PJ, Hillis LD, Lange RA, Page RL. Electrophysiologic effects of intranasal cocaine. Am J Cardiol 1995;76:398–400.

        55. Vongpatanasin W, Hillis LD, Lange RA. Prosthetic heart valves. N Engl J Med 1996;335:407–416.

        56. Daniel WC, Lange RA, Landau C, Willard JE, Hillis LD. Effects of the intracoronary infusion of cocaine on coronary arterial dimensions and blood flow in humans. Am J Cardiol 1996;78:288–291.

        57. Pitts WR, Lange RA, Cigarroa JE, Hillis LD. Preoperative left ventricular peak systolic pressure/end-systolic volume ratio and functional status following valve surgery in patients with mitral regurgitation and enlarged end-systolic volumes. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1493–1497.

        58. Pitts WR, Lange RA, Cigarroa JE, Hillis LD. Cocaine-induced myocardial ischemia and infarction: pathophysiology, recognition, and management. Prog Cardiovas Dis 1997;40:65–76.

        59. Pitts WR, Vongpatanasin W, Cigarroa JE, Hillis LD, Lange RA. Effects of the intracoronary infusion of cocaine on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in humans. Circulation 1998;97:1270–1273.

        60. Vongpatanasin W, Brickner ME, Hillis LD, Lange RA. The Eisenmenger syndrome in adults. Ann Int Med 1998;128:745–755.

        61. Brickner ME, Hillis LD, Lange RA. Congenital heart disease in adults. N Engl J Med 2000;342:256–263;334–342.

        62. Lange RA, Hillis LD. Cardiovascular complications of cocaine use. N Engl J Med 2001;345:351–358.

        63. Rapp AH, Lange RA, Cigarroa JE, Keeley ED, Hillis LD. Relation of pulmonary arterial diastolic and mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2001;88:823–824.

        64. Rapp AH, Cigarroa JE, Lange RA, Keeley EC, Hillis LD. Hemodynamic characteristics and procedural outcome of patients with mitral stenosis and a depressed cardiac output. Am J Cardiol 2001;88:1212–1213.

        65. Saland KE, Hillis LD, Lange RA, Cigarroa JE. Influence of morphine sulfate on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction in humans. Am J Cardiol 2002;90:810–811.