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Coronary vasoconstriction after coronary angioplasty is attenuated by endothelin a receptor antagonism

      Previous studies have demonstrated distal coronary vasoconstriction immediately after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). It was presumed that this coronary vasoconstriction is the result of intimal injury or endothelial dysfunction,
      • Suter T.M.
      • Buechi M.
      • Hess O.M.
      • Haemmerli-Saner C.
      • Gaglione A.
      • Krayenbuehl H.P.
      Normalization of coronary vasomotion after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty?.
      abnormal autoregulatory tone,
      • Fischell T.A.
      • Derby G.
      • Tse T.M.
      • Stadius M.L.
      Coronary artery vasoconstriction routinely occurs after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty a quantitative arteriographic analysis.
      ,
      • Fischell T.A.
      • Bausback K.N.
      • McDonald T.V.
      Evidence of altered epicardial coronary artery autoregulation as a cause of distal coronary vasoconstriction after successful coronary artery angioplasty.
      ,
      • El-Tamimi H.
      • Davies G.J.
      • Hackett D.
      • Sritara P.
      • Bertrand O.
      • Crea F.
      • Maseri A.
      Abnormal vasomotor changes early after coronary angioplasty a quantitative angiographic study of their time course.
      formation of vasoactive substances,
      • Golino P.
      • Piscione F.
      • Benedict C.R.
      • Anderson H.V.
      • Cappelli-Bigazzi M.
      • Indolfi C.
      • Condorelli M.
      • Chiariello M.
      • Willerson J.T.
      Local effect of serotonin released during coronary angioplasty.
      ,
      • McFadden E.P.
      • Clarke J.G.
      • Davies G.
      • Kaski J.C.
      • Haider A.W.
      • Maseri A.
      Effect of intracoronary serotonin on coronary vessels in patients with stable angina and patients with variant angina.
      impaired release of endothelial-derived relaxing factor,
      • Harrison D.G.
      • Bates J.N.
      The nitrovasodilator new ideas about old drugs.
      and activation of adrenergic neural reflexes.
      • Gregorini L.
      • Fajadet J.
      • Robert G.
      • Cassagneau B.
      • Bernis M.
      • Marco J.
      Coronary vasoconstriction after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is attenuated by antiadrenergic agents.
      Endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been found to be elevated after PTCA.
      • Kyriakides Z.S.
      • Markianos M.
      • Iliodromitis E.K.
      • Kremastinos D.T.
      Vein plasma endothelin-1 and cyclic GMP increase during angioplasty is related to myocardial ischemia.
      ET-1 produces very potent and marked vasoconstriction in vitro as well as in vivo.
      • Levin E.R.
      Endothelins.
      ET-1 binds to at least 2 receptors: in blood vessels, endothelin A (ETA) receptors are present only on vascular smooth muscle cells and cause contraction, whereas endothelin B receptors are on endothelium, causing vasodilatation, and on vascular smooth muscle cells, causing contraction. In healthy men, the major receptor causing vasoconstriction, at least in the systemic circulation, is the ETA receptor.
      • Haynes W.G.
      • Webb D.J.
      The endothelin family of peptides local hormones with diverse roles in health and disease?.
      ,
      • Verhaar M.C.
      • Strachan F.E.
      • Newby D.E.
      • Cruden N.L.
      • Koomans H.A.
      • Rabelink T.J.
      • Webb D.J.
      Endothelin-A receptor antagonist-mediated vasodilatation is attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis and by endothelin-B receptor blockade.
      ,
      • Strachan F.E.
      • Spratt J.C.
      • Wilkinson I.B.
      • Gray G.A.
      • Johnston N.R.
      • Webb D.J.
      Systemic blockade of the endothelin-B receptor increases peripheral vascular resistance in healthy men.
      Endogenously produced ET-1 contributes to the maintenance of basal coronary artery tone in humans with and without coronary artery disease.
      • Kyriakides Z.S.
      • Kremastinos Dth
      • Bofilis E.
      • Tousoulis D.
      • Antoniadis A.
      • Webb D.J.
      Endogenous endothelin type A receptor stimulation in patients undergoing coronary arteriography.
      The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ETA receptor stimulation contributes to the coronary artery vasoconstriction observed after PTCA.
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