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Association of elevation of anti-helicobacter pylori antibody with myocardial ischemic events in coronary artery disease

      There is a growing body of evidence supporting the concept that inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and its complications.
      • Anderson J.L.
      • Carlquist J.F.
      • Muhlestein J.B.
      • Horne B.D.
      • Elmer S.P.
      Evaluation of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker, and infectious serology as risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.
      ,
      • Liuzzo G.
      • Biasucci L.M.
      • Gallimore J.R.
      • Grillo R.L.
      • Rebuzzi A.G.
      • Pepys M.B.
      • Maseri A.
      The prognostic value of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein in severe unstable angina.
      Previous studies
      • Anderson J.L.
      • Carlquist J.F.
      • Muhlestein J.B.
      • Horne B.D.
      • Elmer S.P.
      Evaluation of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker, and infectious serology as risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction.
      ,
      • Berliner J.A.
      • Navab M.
      • Fogelman A.M.
      • Frank J.S.
      • Demer L.L.
      • Edwards P.A.
      • Watson A.D.
      • Lusis A.J.
      Atherosclerosis. Basic mechanisms.
      have demonstrated that there are infectious and noninfectious factors that may drive the inflammatory activities in coronary artery disease (CAD). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, flagellate bacillus that is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy.
      • Danesh J.
      • Collins R.
      • Peto R.
      Chronic infections and coronary heart disease is there a link?.
      The relation between H. pylori infection and CAD has been studied extensively.
      • Mendall M.A.
      • Goggin P.M.
      • Molineaux N.
      • Levy J.
      • Toosy T.
      • Strachan D.
      • Camm A.J.
      • Northfield T.C.
      Relation of Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary heart disease.
      ,
      • Patel P.
      • Mendall M.A.
      • Carrington D.
      • Strachan D.P.
      • Leatham E.
      • Molineaux N.
      • Levy J.
      • Blakeston C.
      • Seymour C.A.
      • Camm A.J.
      • Northfield T.C.
      Association of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors.
      ,
      • Murray L.J.
      • Bamford K.B.
      • O’Reilly D.P.J.
      • McCrum E.E.
      • Evans A.E.
      Helicobacter pylori infection relation with cardiovascular risk factors, ischemic heart disease, and social class.
      ,
      • Pasceri V.
      • Cammarota G.
      • Patti G.
      • Cuoco L.
      • Gasbarrini A.
      • Grillo R.L.
      • Fedeli G.
      • Gasbarrini G.
      • Maseri A.
      Association of virulent Helicobacter pylori strain with ischemic heart disease.
      Nevertheless, the effect of H. pylori infection on the long-term outcome of patients with CAD remains unknown. Because serum level of specific anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (anti-H. pylori IgG) antibody is a reliable indicator of chronic H. pylori infection,
      • Westblom T.U.
      • Barthel J.S.
      • Kosunen T.U.
      • Everett E.D.
      Serum IgG and IgA antibody responses to Campylobacter pylori in a group of healthy asymptomatic volunteers.
      ,
      • Danesh J.
      Is there a link between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary heart disease?.
      we evaluated the serum concentrations of anti-H. pylori IgG antibody among patients with CAD in this study to determine whether H. pylori infection was a predictor for subsequent ischemic events during follow-up.
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