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Effects of carvedilol on heart rate and blood pressure variability in subjects with chronic heart failure

      We designed this study to determine whether carvedilol, a β blocker that has hemodynamic benefits
      • Bristow M.R.
      • Gilbert E.M.
      • Abraham W.T.
      • Adams K.
      • Fowler M.B.
      • Hershberger R.E.
      • Kubo S.H.
      • Narahara M.D.
      • Ingersoll H.
      • Krueger S.
      • Young S.
      • Shusterman N.
      MOCHA Investigators
      Carvedilol produces dose-related improvements in left ventricular function and survival in subjects with chronic heart failure.
      and decreases mortality,
      • Bristow M.R.
      • Gilbert E.M.
      • Abraham W.T.
      • Adams K.
      • Fowler M.B.
      • Hershberger R.E.
      • Kubo S.H.
      • Narahara M.D.
      • Ingersoll H.
      • Krueger S.
      • Young S.
      • Shusterman N.
      MOCHA Investigators
      Carvedilol produces dose-related improvements in left ventricular function and survival in subjects with chronic heart failure.
      ,
      • Lechat P.
      • Packer M.
      • Chalon S.
      • Cucherat M.
      • Arab T.
      • Boissel J.P.
      Clinical effects of beta-adrenergic blockade in chronic heart failure, a meta-analysis of double-blind placebo controlled, randomized trial.
      improves baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes spectral components in patients with advanced heart failure. To measure baroreflex sensitivity, we performed transfer function analysis of RR variability, and compared the results with those yielded by the currently acknowledged gold standard, the phenylephrine method.
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