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Initial results and long-term clinical and angiographic outcome of coronary stenting in women

      The influence of different clinical variables, including gender, on balloon coronary angioplasty results has been extensively analyzed.
      • Cowley M.J
      • Mullin S.M
      • Kelsey S.F
      • Kent K.M
      • Gruentzig A.R
      • Detre K.M
      • Passamani E.R
      Sex differences in early and long-term results of coronary angioplasty in the NHLBI PTCA registry.
      ,
      • Kelsey S.F
      • James M
      • Holubkov A.L
      • Holubkob R
      • Cowley M.J
      • Detre K.M
      Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Registry
      Results of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in women 1985–1986 National Heart; Lung and Blood Institute’s coronary angioplasty registry.
      ,
      • Bell M.R
      • Holmes D.R
      • Berger P.B
      • Garratt K.N
      • Bailey K.R
      • Gersh B.J
      The changing in-hospital mortality of women undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
      ,
      • Weintraub W.S
      • Wenger N.K
      • Kosinski A.S
      • Douglas J.S
      • Liberman H.A
      • Morris D.C
      • King III, S.B
      Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in women compared with men.
      ,
      • Arnold A.M
      • Mick M.J
      • Piedmonte M.R
      • Simpfendorfer C
      Gender differences for coronary angioplasty.
      ,
      • Alfonso F
      • Macaya C
      • Iñiguez A
      • Bañuelos C
      • Rodrigo J.L
      • Garcı́a Espinosa A
      • Zarco P
      Perfil clı́nico y resultados de la angioplastia coronaria en mujeres. Comparación con el varón.
      ,
      • Bell M.R
      • Grill D.E
      • Garratt K.N
      • Berger P.B
      • Gersh B.J
      • Holmes D.R
      Long-term outcome of women compared with men after successful coronary angioplasty.
      ,
      • Ruygrok P.N
      • de Jaegere P.T
      • van Domburg R.T
      • van den Brand M.J
      • Serruys P.W
      • de Feyter P.J
      Women fare no worse than men 10 years after attempted coronary angioplasty.
      However, the implications and results of coronary stenting in women have not been systematically studied. This information is relevant, first, because results of balloon coronary angioplasty in women are generally considered less satisfactory than in men
      • Cowley M.J
      • Mullin S.M
      • Kelsey S.F
      • Kent K.M
      • Gruentzig A.R
      • Detre K.M
      • Passamani E.R
      Sex differences in early and long-term results of coronary angioplasty in the NHLBI PTCA registry.
      ,
      • Kelsey S.F
      • James M
      • Holubkov A.L
      • Holubkob R
      • Cowley M.J
      • Detre K.M
      Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Registry
      Results of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in women 1985–1986 National Heart; Lung and Blood Institute’s coronary angioplasty registry.
      ,
      • Bell M.R
      • Holmes D.R
      • Berger P.B
      • Garratt K.N
      • Bailey K.R
      • Gersh B.J
      The changing in-hospital mortality of women undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
      ,
      • Weintraub W.S
      • Wenger N.K
      • Kosinski A.S
      • Douglas J.S
      • Liberman H.A
      • Morris D.C
      • King III, S.B
      Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in women compared with men.
      ,
      • Arnold A.M
      • Mick M.J
      • Piedmonte M.R
      • Simpfendorfer C
      Gender differences for coronary angioplasty.
      ,
      • Alfonso F
      • Macaya C
      • Iñiguez A
      • Bañuelos C
      • Rodrigo J.L
      • Garcı́a Espinosa A
      • Zarco P
      Perfil clı́nico y resultados de la angioplastia coronaria en mujeres. Comparación con el varón.
      , and second, because there is substantial interest concerning causes of a potential referral bias in favor of men in the use of invasive diagnostic procedures and coronary interventions.
      • Ayanian J
      • Epstein A
      Differences in the procedures between women and men hospitalized for coronary artery disease.
      ,
      • Bickell N.A
      • Pieper K.S
      • Lee K.L
      • Mark D.B
      • Glowere D.D
      • Pryor D.B
      • Califf R.M
      Referral patterns for coronary artery disease treatment Gender bias or good clinical judgement?.
      Accordingly, the present investigation was undertaken to determine the initial results and the long-term clinical and angiographic implications of coronary stenting in women.
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