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Impact of low body weight on frequency of pediatric cardiac catheterization complications

      Pediatric cardiac catheterization has undergone dramatic changes over the past 20 years. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, 2-dimensional and color flow Doppler echocardiography began to replace catheterization as the principle diagnostic modality for most cardiac anomalies.
      • Huhta J.C
      • Glasow P
      • Murphy D.J
      • Gutgesell H.P
      • Ott D.A
      • McNamara D.G
      • Smith E.O
      Surgery without catheterization for congenital heart defects management of 100 patients.
      But concurrent with the decrease in the number of diagnostic catheterizations, interventional catheterization emerged. As a result, in the last decade, the pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory has evolved to a site in which therapeutic procedures are the mainstay.
      • Shim D
      • Lloyd T.R
      • Crowley D.C
      • Beekman R.H
      Neonatal cardiac catheterization a 10-year transition from diagnosis to therapy.
      The risks associated with pediatric catheterization have been well described in the era of diagnostic procedures.
      • Braunwald E
      • Gorlin R
      • McIntosh H.D
      • Ross R.S
      • Rudolf A.M
      • Swan H.J.C
      Cooperative study on cardiac catheterization.
      ,
      • Stanger P
      • Heymann M.A
      • Tarnoff H
      • Hoffman J.I
      • Rudolph A.M
      Complications of cardiac catheterization of neonates, infants, and children.
      ,
      • Cassidy S.C
      • Schmidt K.G
      • Van Hare G.F
      • Stanger P
      • Teitel D.F
      Complications of pediatric cardiac catheterization a 3-year study.
      ,
      • Cohn H.E
      • Freed M.D
      • Hellenbrand W.F
      • Fyler D.C
      Complications and mortality associated with cardiac catheterization in infants under one year a prospective study.
      ,
      • Fellows K.E
      • Wolfgang R
      • Keane J.F
      • Lock J.E
      Acute complications of catheter therapy for congenital heart disease.
      ,
      • Booth P
      • Redington A.N
      • Shinebourne E.A
      • Rigby M.L
      Early complications of interventional balloon catheterization in infants and children.
      In all series, complication rates were higher in small infants. Improvements in techniques and equipment have led to better outcomes in general, but data concerning complication rates in the “new” interventional pediatric catheterization laboratory are sparse, with little information available concerning outcome in infants.
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