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Impact of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease on Heart Failure Hospitalizations After Acute Myocardial Infarction

Published:December 07, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.10.041
      Very few studies evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) on heart failure (HF) hospitalization risk following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). For this retrospective cohort analysis, we identified adult AMI survivors from January to June 2014 from the United States Nationwide Readmissions Database. Outcomes were a 6-month HF, fatal HF, composite of HF during the AMI or a 6-month HF, and a composite of 6-month HF or death during a non–HF-related admission. We analyzed differences in outcomes across categories of patients without renal injury, AKI without CKD, stable CKD, AKI on CKD, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Of 237,549 AMI survivors, AKI was present in 13.8%, CKD in 16.5%, ESRD in 3.4%, and AKI on CKD in 7.7%. Patients with renal failure had lower coronary revascularization rates and higher in-hospital HF. A 6-month HF hospitalization occurred in 12,934 patients (5.4%). Compared with patients without renal failure (3.3%), 6-month HF admission rate was higher in patients with AKI on CKD (14.6%; odds ratio [OR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81 to 2.19), ESRD (11.2%; OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.36 to 1.81), stable CKD (10.7%; OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.56 to 1.88), and AKI (8.6%; OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.36 to 1.70). Results were generally homogenous in prespecified subgroups and for the other outcomes. In conclusion, 1 in 4 AMI survivors had either acute or chronic renal failure. The presence of any form of renal failure was associated with a substantially increased risk of 6-month HF hospitalizations and associated mortality with the highest risk associated with AKI on CKD.
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