Frequency of positive blood cultures during transesophageal echocardiography

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Although recommended for a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients at increased risk for infective endocarditis, antibiotic prophylaxis is generally not considered necessary for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.1,2 Thus, the recent recommendation for antibiotic prophylaxis in transesophageal echocardiography3 is somewhat surprising. With the increasing number of transesophageal examinations, the matter clearly needs the cardiologists' attention. In this article, we report on the incidence and nature of positive blood cultures and smear samples from the echo probe of patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography in our department.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Working party of the British society for antimicrobial chemotherapy
        The antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis.
        Lancet. 1982; 2: 1323-1326
        • Committee on rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young
        Prevention of bacterial endocarditis.
        Circulation. 1984; 70: 1123A-1127A
        • Görge G
        • Erbel R
        • Henrichs KJ
        • Wenchel HM
        • Werner HP
        • Meyer J
        Positive blood cultures during transesophageal echocardiography.
        Am J Cardiol. 1990; 65: 1404-1405
        • Lee S
        • Schoen I
        • Malkin A
        Comparison of use of alcohol with that of iodine for skin antisepsis in obtaining blood cultures.
        J Clin Pathol. 1967; 47: 646-648
        • MacGregor RR
        • Beaty HN
        Evaluation of positive blood cultures.
        Arch Intern Med. 1972; 130: 84-87
        • Evans CA
        • Mattern KL
        The bacterial flora of the antecubital fossa: the efficacy of alcohol disinfection of this site, the palm and the forehead.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1980; 75: 140-143
        • Montes LF
        • Wilborn WH
        Anatomical location of normal skin flora.
        Arch Dermatol. 1970; 101: 145-159
        • Steckelberg JM
        • Khandheria BK
        • Anhalt JP
        • Click RL
        • Seward JB
        • Wilson WR
        Risk of bacteremia associated with transesophageal echocardiography (abstr).
        Circulation. 1990; 82 (suppl): III-968
        • Chan KL
        • Cheung PK
        • Wong S
        • Sochowski R
        • Austin TW
        • Melendez LJ
        Transesophageal echocardiography and bacteremia (abstr).
        Circulation. 1990; 82 (suppl): III-970
        • Botoman VA
        • Surawicz CM
        Bacteremia with gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.
        Gastrointest Endosc. 1986; 32: 342-346