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Control of cardiac output in essential hypertension

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      Abstract

      Cardiac and renal hemodynamics and cardiopulmonary and total blood volume were determined in 202 men, 101 with normotension and 101 of the same age with chronic essential hypertension, normal renal function and balanced sodium intake and urinary output. Cardiac output was identical in the two groups, whereas blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were significantly different. The two groups exhibited strong differences in the correlation study: (1) Correlations of blood pressure with, respectively, heart rate, cardiopulmonary blood volume and total blood volume were significant in the normotensive group but not in the hypertensive group. (2) Correlations of cardiac output with, respectively, heart rate, cardiopulmonary blood volume and total blood volume were significant in both groups. (3) Correlations of renal blood flow with, respectively, cardiac output, blood pressure and total blood volume were significant in the hypertensive group but not in the normotensive group.
      This study provides evidence that: (1) the volume and neural control of blood pressure are disrupted in hypertension whereas control of cardiac output is maintained; and (2) adaptive mechanisms involving renal function are necessary to the maintenance of normal cardiac output in patients with essential hypertension.
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