Reply: The fourth heart sound: An inadequately investigated subject

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Tavel ME
        The fourth heart sound.
        Circulation. 1974; 44: 1264
        • Rectra EH
        • Khan AH
        • Pigott VM
        • et al.
        Audibility of the fourth heart sound: a prospective, blind auscultatory and polygraphic investigation.
        JAMA. 1972; 221: 36-41
        • Bethell HJN
        • Nixon PGF
        Atrial gallop in coronary heart disease without overt infarction.
        Br Heart J. 1974; 36: 682
        • Swistak M
        • Mushlin H
        • Spodick DH
        Comparative prevalence of the fourth heart sound in hypertensive and matched normal persons.
        Am J Cardiol. 1974; 33: 614-616
        • Spodick DH
        • Quarry-Pigott VM
        Prevalence of the fourth heart sound by phonocardiography in the absence of cardiac disease.
        Am Heart J. 1974; 87: 11-14
        • Spodick DH
        • Pigott VM
        • Chirife R
        Preclinical cardiac malfunction in chronic alcoholism.
        in: Comparison with matched normal controls and with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 287. 1972: 677-680
        • Spodick DH
        The fourth heart sound.
        Circulation. 1974; 49: 1263
        • Spodick DH
        Significance of the fourth heart sound.
        Am Heart J. 1974; 88: 126
        • Caceres C
        • Perry L
        Principles of auscultation.
        in: The Innocent Murmur. Little Brown, Boston1967: 21-44