Pharmacology and clinical use of hydralazine in the treatment of diastolic hypertension

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Hydralazine remains one of the most interesting and valuable hypotensive agents available. Having both a central and a peripheral action, it provides uniform lowering of the blood pressure. Potentiation of its hypotensive action by concomitant use of thiazide diuretics is an additional desirable property that makes it useful in the treatment of hypertension despite the varied side effects that may accompany its use. The exacerbation of coronary insufficiency concomitant with its use contraindicates the prescription of hydralazine for patients with symptomatic coronary disease. The delayed and serious “collagenlike” syndromes that occasionally occur during hydralazine therapy are less frequently seen with smaller doses of the drug than with the larger doses formerly used; more recent work suggests that regression of the syndrome after cessation of hydralazine therapy may be prolonged.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to American Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Gross F.
        • Druey J.
        • Meier R.
        Eine neue Gruppe blutdrucksenkender Substanzen von besonderem Wirkungscharakter.
        Experientia. 1950; 6: 19
        • Druey J.
        • Marxer A.
        Hypotensive hydrazinophthalazines and related compounds.
        J. Med. & Pharmacol. Chem. 1959; 1: 1
        • Schroeder H.A.
        The pharmacology of hydralazine.
        in: Moyer J.H. First Hahnemann Symposium on Hypertensive Disease. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1959: 332
        • Perry Jr., H.M.
        A Method of quantitating 1-hydrazinophthalazine in body fluids.
        J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 1953; 41: 566
        • Schroeder H.A.
        Mechanisms of Hypertension: With a Consideration of Atherosclerosis.
        in: Charles C Thomas, Springfield1957: 122
        • Gross F.
        • Schuler W.
        • Tripod J.
        • Meier R.
        Hemmung der Diaminooxydase (Histaminase) durch Phthalazinderivate.
        Experientia. 1952; 8: 229
        • Werle E.
        • Schauer A.
        • Hartung G.
        Einfluss von Hydrazin-und Guanylhydrazonderivaten auf die Aktivatät der Monaminoxydase, Diaminoxydase, Dopadecarboxylase, und Histidindecarboxylase.
        Klin. Wchnschr. 1955; 33: 562
        • Schroeder H.A.
        Mechanisms of Hypertension: With a Consideration of Atherosclerosis.
        in: Charles C Thomas, Springfield1957: 88
        • Taylor R.D.
        • Page I.H.
        • Corcoran A.C.
        A hormonal neurogenic vasopressor mechanism.
        A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 1951; 88: 1
        • Tripod J.
        • Meier R.
        Détermination et classification pharmacodynamique de l'action vasculaire p'eriphérique de l'aprésoline, du néprésol et du serpasil.
        Arch. int. pharmacod. 1954; 99: 104
        • Schroeder H.A.
        Mechanisms of Hypertension: With a Consideration of Atherosclerosis.
        in: Charles C Thomas, Springfield1957: 84
        • Walker H.A.
        • Wilson S.
        • Atkins E.C.
        • Garrett H.E.
        • Richardson A.P.
        The effect of 1-hydrazinophthalazine (C-5968) and related compounds on the cardiovascular system of dogs.
        J. Pharmacol. 1951; 101: 368
        • Craver B.N.
        • Barrett W.
        • Cameron A.
        • Yonkmon F.F.
        The activities of 1-hydrazinophthalazine (Ba-5968), a hypotensive agent.
        J. Am. Pharm. A. 1951; 40: 559
        • Bein H.J.
        • Gross F.
        • Tripod J.
        • Meier R.
        Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Kreislaufwirkung der blutdrucksenkenden Hydrazinophthalazinderivate Apresolin und Nepresol.
        Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 1953; 83: 336
        • Taylor R.D.
        • Duston H.P.
        • Corcoran A.C.
        • Page I.H.
        Evaluation of 1-hydrazinophthalazine (“apresoline”) in treatment of hypertensive disease.
        A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 1952; 90: 734
        • Freis E.D.
        • Rose J.C.
        • Higgins T.F.
        • Finnerty Jr., F.A.
        • Kelley R.T.
        • Partenope E.A.
        The hemodynamic effects of hypotensive drugs in man: 1-Hydrazinophthalazine.
        Circulation. 1953; 8: 199
        • Moyer J.H.
        • Huggins R.A.
        The effect of ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium on some of the pharmacodynamics of 1-hydrazinophthalazine (Abstr.).
        J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 1952; 106: 407
      1. Crimson, K. S. Quoted by Moyer, J. H.19.

        • Moyer J.H.
        Hydralazine (apresoline) hydrochloride: Pharmacological observations and clinical results in therapy of hypertension.
        A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 1953; 91: 419
        • Reubi F.
        Influence de quelques vasodilateurs péripheriques sur le flux sanguin rénal.
        Helvet. med. acta. 1949; 16: 297
        • Reubi F.C.
        Renal hyperemia induced in man by a new phthalazine derivative.
        in: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med.73. 1950: 102
        • Moyer J.H.
        • Handley C.A.
        • Huggins R.A.
        Some pharmacological effects of 1-hydrazinophthalazine (C-5968) with particular reference to renal function and cardiovascular response.
        J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 1951; 103: 368
        • Juergens J.L.
        Side effects of antihypertensive drugs.
        in: Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin.33. 1958: 317
        • Moyer J.H.
        • Brest A.N.
        Hydralazine in the treatment of hypertension.
        M. Clin. North America. 1961; 45: 375
        • Dustan H.P.
        • Taylor R.D.
        • Corcoran A.C.
        • Page I.H.
        Rheumatic and febrile syndrome during prolonged hydralazine treatment.
        J.A.M.A. 1954; 154: 23
        • Erickson J.G.
        • Hines Jr., E.A.
        • Pease G.L.
        • Brunsting L.A.
        Rheumatoid and lupuserythematosuslike syndromes: Complications of hydralazine (apresoline) therapy for hypertension.
        A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. 1956; 74: 640
      2. Hines, E. A., Jr. Personal communcation to the authors.

        • Hildreth E.A.
        • Biro E.C.
        • McCreary T.A.
        Persistence of the “hydralazine syndrome”: A follow-up study of eleven cases.
        J.A.M.A. 1960; 173: 657
        • Comens P.
        Chronic intoxication from hydralazine resembling disseminated lupus erythematosus and its apparent reversal by manganese.
        in: Seven M.J. Johnson A.L. MetalBinding in Medicine: Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital of Philadelphia. J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia1960: 312
        • Kirkendall W.M.
        • Page E.B.
        Polyneuritis occurring during hydralazine therapy: Report of two cases and discussion of adverse reactions to hydralazine.
        J.A.M.A. 1958; 167: 427
        • Gifford Jr., R.W.
        Hypertensive emergencies and their treatment.
        M. Clin. North America. 1961; 45: 441
        • Finnerty Jr., F.A.
        Toxemia of pregnancy.
        M. Clin. North America. 1961; 45: 487
        • McCall M.L.
        Severe toxemia of pregnancy.
        Postgrad. Med. 1961; 30: 188